Francis Sumner, PhD
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Upon returning from the war, he reenrolled in the doctoral program at Clark and in 1920 his dissertation titled "Psychoanalysis of Freud and Adler" was accepted. Sumner became a professor at various universities and managed to publish several articles despite the refusal of research agencies to provide funding for him because of his color.
He was interested in understanding racial bias and supporting educational justice. Sumner is also credited as one of the founders of the psychology department at Howard University, which he chaired from 1928 until his death in 1954.ReferenceThomas, R. (2006). "Sumner, Francis Cecil." African American National Biography, edited by Henry Louis Gates Jr, edited by Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham. Oxford African American Studies Center.
Inez Beverly Prosser, PhD
In 1933, she graduated from the University of Cincinnati with her PhD in educational psychology. Her dissertation, "The Non-Academic Development of Negro Children in Mixed and Segregated Schools," received much acknowledgment. Her findings revealed that black students benefited more in segregated schools because they were more likely to receive affection, support and a balanced curriculum versus an integrated school where they were likely to have problems adjusting academically, socially and in accepting their identity.
Tragically, Dr. Prosser died in a car accident one year after she received her PhD. However, during her career she encouraged many black students to pursue higher education and her work was influential in the Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court decision that later took place in 1954.
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