A kidney stone is a hard mass comprised of tiny crystals. One or more stones deserve to be in the kidney or ureter at the same time.

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Alternative Names

Renal calculi; Nephrolithiasis; Stones - kidney; Calcium oxalate - stones; Cystine - stones; Struvite - stones; Uric acid - stones; Urinary lithiasis


This computer animation begins with an front see of the urinary tract and continues with the formation of kidney stones presented in a cut-section that the kidney. Severities of kidney stones room depicted, demonstrating various degrees of urine obstruction.

Kidney stones space common. Some varieties run in families. They regularly occur in premature infants.

There room different types of kidney stones. The cause of the trouble depends ~ above the form of stone.

Stones can form when urine consists of too much of details substances that form crystals. These crystals can construct into stones end weeks or months.

Calcium stones are many common. They are most most likely to occur in men in between ages 20 come 30. Calcium can incorporate with other substances to kind the stone.Oxalate is the most usual of these. Oxalate is present in particular foods such as spinach. That is likewise found in vitamin C supplements. Diseases of the little intestine boost your hazard for these stones.

Calcium stones have the right to also type from combining v phosphate or carbonate.

Other types of stones include:

Cystine stones can kind in civilization who have cystinuria. This disorder operation in families. That affects both men and also women.Struvite stones room mostly found in males or females who have actually repeated urinary tract infections. This stones can flourish very huge and can block the kidney, ureter, or bladder.Uric acid stones are much more common in guys than in women. Lock can take place with gout or chemotherapy.Other substances, together as particular medicines, additionally can kind stones.

The greatest risk variable for kidney stones is not drinking enough fluids. Kidney stones are much more likely to occur if friend make much less than 1 liter (32 ounces) of urine a day.


You might not have actually symptoms till the stones relocate down the pipe (ureters) through which pee empties into your bladder. As soon as this happens, the stones deserve to block the circulation of urine out of the kidneys.

The key symptom is major pain the starts and also stops suddenly:

Pain might be felt in the ship area or next of the back.Pain may move to the groin area (groin pain), testicles (testicle pain) in men, and also labia (vaginal pain) in women.

Other symptoms deserve to include:

Abnormal urine colorBlood in the urineChillsFeverNausea and also vomiting

Exams and Tests

The health care provider will do a physical exam. The ship area (abdomen) or ago might feeling sore.

Tests that may be excellent include:

Blood exam to examine calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, and electrolyte levelsKidney duty testsUrinalysis to watch crystals and also look for red blood cell in urineExamination that the stone to determine the form

Stones or a blockage have the right to be seen on:

Abdominal CT scan ab x-raysIntravenous pyelogram (IVP)Kidney ultrasoundRetrograde pyelogram


Treatment depends on the type of rock and the severity of her symptoms.

Kidney stones the are tiny most frequently pass v your mechanism on their own.

Your urine must be strained for this reason the stone can it is in saved and tested.Drink at the very least 6 to 8 glasses of water every day to create a large amount that urine. This will aid the stone pass.Pain can be an extremely bad. Over-the-counter pain medicines (for example, ibuprofen and naproxen), either alone or in addition to narcotics, have the right to be an extremely effective.

Some world with major pain indigenous kidney stones need to stay in the hospital. You may need to gain fluids through an IV into your vein.

For some varieties of stones, your provider may prescribe medicine to prevent stones from developing or help breakdown and eliminate the product that is bring about the stone. These medicines have the right to include:

Allopurinol (for uric acid stones)Antibiotics (for struvite stones)Diuretics (water pills)Phosphate solutionsSodium bicarbonate or sodium citrateWater pills (thiazide diuretics)Tamsulosin to relax the ureter and help the rock pass

Surgery is often needed if:

The stone is too large to pass on that own.The rock is growing.The rock is blocking to pee flow and causing an epidemic or kidney damage.The pain can not be controlled. 

Today, most treatments space much less invasive 보다 in the past.

Lithotripsy is provided to eliminate stones slightly smaller than one fifty percent an inch (1.25 centimeters) the are situated in the kidney or ureter. It offers sound or shock tide to rest up stones right into tiny fragments. Then, the stone fragments leaving the body in the urine. That is also called extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy or ESWL.Procedures carry out by pass a unique instrument with a tiny surgical cut in her skin top top your earlier and into your kidney or ureters are provided for large stones, or when the kidneys or surrounding locations are mistakenly formed. The stone is removed with a tube (endoscope).Ureteroscopy might be supplied for stones in the lower urinary tract. A laser is offered to break up the stone.Rarely, open surgery (nephrolithotomy) might be needed if other methods do not work or room not possible.

Talk to her provider about what treatment alternatives may work-related for you.

You will need to take self-care steps. Which procedures you take rely on the kind of rock you have, but they may include:

Drinking extra water and other liquidsEating much more of part foods and also cutting ago on other foodsTaking drugs to aid prevent stonesTaking medications to help you happen a stone (anti-inflammatory drugs, alpha-blockers)

Outlook (Prognosis)

Kidney stones space painful, but most of the time have the right to be removed from the body without causing lasting damage.

Kidney stones frequently come back. This occurs more often if the reason is not found and also treated.

You room at danger for:

Urinary street infectionKidney damages or scar if treatment is delayed for too long

Possible Complications

Complication the kidney stones may encompass the obstruction of the ureter (acute unilateral obstructive uropathy).

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When to contact a medical Professional

Call her provider if you have symptoms the a kidney stone:

Severe pain in your back or side that will not go awayBlood in her urineFever and chillsVomitingUrine that smells negative or watch cloudyA burning feeling when you urinate

If you have actually been diagnosed with blockage from a stone, passage should be shown either by record in a strainer during urination or by follow-up x-ray. Being pain cost-free does no confirm that the rock has passed.


If you have actually a history of stones:

Drink plenty of fluids (6 come 8 glasses that water every day) to develop enough urine.You might need come take medicine or make changes to her diet because that some species of stones.Your provider may want to carry out blood and urine tests to help determine the suitable prevention steps.