Received: 3 December 2018 / Revised: 19 December 2018 / Accepted: 21 December 2018 / Published: 25 December 2018
Vegan diet in kids need to be adequately planned so they can safely fulfill children’s requirements for growth and development. Adequate and realistic meal planning guidelines must not be an overwhelming to achieve, thanks to the increasing number and accessibility of natural and also fortified vegan foods, which can assist children to meet all their nutrients requirements. In order to ensure an enough supply of vital nutrients, families and also health professionals need accurate, reliable, and also easy-to-use enjoy the meal planning tools. The aim of this write-up is to provide a practical technique system to meal planning, based upon the same food exchange methodology that has actually been currently published in adults. Everyday portions of every food exchange group have to be calculated therefore the result menu offers at the very least 90% that the Dietary recommendation Intakes (DRIs) the protein, iron, zinc, calcium, and n-3 fat acids because that each age group, sex, and physical activity level. These diets do not carry out enough vitamin B-12 and vitamin D. Although strengthened plant drinks, breakfast cereals or tree protein-rich commodities could administer variable quantities of these 2 vitamins, B12 supplementation is always recommended and vitamin D supplementation have to be taken into consideration whenever sunlight exposure is limited. This tool can be offered to plan healthful and also balanced vegan diets because that children and adolescents.

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Keywords: food exchange; vegetable diets; meal planning; vegetables food portions; nutritional ingredient food exchange; vegetables diets; meal planning; vegan food portions; nutritional composition
The number of people consuming vegan diet is on the rise, specifically in Europe and also other Western nations <1,2>. Although representative data room scarce, it have the right to be assumed the the variety of infants, children, and adolescents on vegan diet is additionally rising <3>. Youngsters diets space usually plan by their parents; therefore, parents" eating patterns have actually a huge influence on youngsters <4>. Return the American Academy that Nutrition, and also other medical and also dietetic societies, take into consideration that well-planned vegetable diets space adequate for children of all eras <5,6>, a poorly planned vegetable diet may have an unfavorable consequences top top the health and growth that children and adolescents, similarly to any other poorly planned diet pattern. Because energy and nutrient demands are higher in relation to body weight throughout growth, infants, children, and teenagers are an especially vulnerable and also are at greater risk of nutrient inadequacies 보다 adults <3,7>. In general, researches on vegetarian and also vegan adults have shown multiple wellness benefits, including lower hazard of obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and also diabetes <8,9>. Few of these impacts have also been it was observed in kids <10>. However, because of the restricted food selection, vegetarians and also in specific vegans must pay distinct attention come potential critical nutrients, i.e., protein, iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin D, vitamin B12, and n-3 fatty acids <11,12,13,14,15,16>. Vegetables diets encompass only tree foods—grains, vegetables, fruits, legumes, nuts, seeds, and vegetable fats and oils. Return the likelihood of nutritional deficiencies increases with much more restrictive diets, vegan diets have the right to be enough if parents do the suitable food choices and follow suitable meal-planning guidelines <6,7>. Health professionals and also practitioners who occupational with vegan families need come be acquainted with the nutritional problems that are specific to vegetable diets and must provide adequate and realistic meal-planning guidelines. The wider availability of practically vegan foods, plenty of of which room fortified, is facilitating the procedure of to plan healthful vegetables diets for children. Food exchange perform have end up being a valuable tool to screen the intake of macronutrents in both healthy individuals and in patients with several clinical conditions. We have actually previously occurred food exchange lists using statistical criteria <17,18> the were particularly designed because that vegetarian and also vegan adults, and also that take into account the macro- and micronutrient contents of the foods commonly consumed by this populace <19>. Although over there is scientific proof showing that in adults a diet giving adequate quantities of energy and macronutrients would administer sufficient amounts of all minerals and vitamins <20>, there space some periods during the lifecycle when micronutrient intake might be endangered despite adequate energy provision, such as childhood and adolescence. Due to the fact that of the duty of medium of funds in kids growth and advancement and in the avoidance of chronic diseases, it is important to develop tools that assess not only the provision of energy and also macronutrients in this delicate population, but also the provision of an essential micronutrients.
The target of this short article is to existing a helpful tool designed come facilitate meal planning in vegan children and also adolescents. This tool has been emerged using the same methodology we previously supplied in vegetarian and also vegan adult <19>. The system is based on exchange foods, allowing the personalization that diet plans follow to separation, personal, instance preferences, however ensuring the the resulting food selection will administer sufficient macro- and micronutrients irrespective of the age, sex, and level the physical activity of the child.
We occurred this practical tool in three phases: in the an initial phase we chose which nutrients were of unique interest in paediatric vegetables nutrition, based on previous research studies <11,12,13,14,15,16,21,22,23,24>. Then us selected those foodstuffs that could administer these nutrients, consisting of several foodstuffs of every representative items (e.g., different breads, tree drinks, etc) and detailed the nutritional ingredient of the sections usually spend by children and adolescents. In the second phase we designed the food exchange groups, adhering to the exact same methodology we have previously published; we likewise described the mean nutrient worths of each exchange group. In the third phase we established the number of daily sections of every exchange food group that is forced to satisfy the nutritional and also energy demands of each period group, as defined below.
After reviewing the research studies performed in vegan youngsters over the last years, us selected the following key nutrients: vitamin B-12 and also D <11,12>, omega-3 fatty acids <13>, protein <12,15,16>, calcium, iron, and also zinc <14,16,21,22,23,24>. Although a vegan diet can meet current recommendations for many of these nutrients, vitamins B12 and D have the right to only be derived from fortified foods, UV-irradiated mushrooms (vitamin D), or additional (in details circumstances vitamin D have the right to be acquired from sunlight). Also, the usage of fortified foodstuffs may be valuable to ensure nutritional adequacy <16,25,26>. A vegan diet can quickly meet human dietary protein needs if the power intake is adequate and if a selection of plant foodstuffs such together legumes, whole grains, nuts and seeds are regularly consumed; in enhancement soy products and also meat analogues can be a valuable resource of protein and minerals <6,26,27>. Vegan kids can acquire calcium from some vegetables (especially cruciferous vegetables), nuts, seeds, legumes (including calcium-set tofu), and drinking water, but fortified foods such as plant drinks and some fruit juices and also breakfast cereals may administer additional, quickly absorbable calcium <19,26,28>. Vegans need dietary tactics to boost the content and also bioavailability that zinc and iron, since the bioavailability of this minerals from plants is lower than from animal products <16,29,30,31>. Good sources of n-3 fatty acids (alpha-linolenic acid) are ground flaxseeds, chia seeds, flaxseed oil, walnuts, and also canola oil <32,33>. Every vegans require to recognize reliable resources of vitamin B-12 and include lock in your diets. These have the right to be fortified foods such as plant drinks, breakfast cereals, meat analogues or nutritional yeast; otherwise, the use of additionally is necessary <6,16>. Vitamin D can likewise be acquired from fortified foods items or UV-irradiated mushroom where easily accessible <16>, but in the absence of an adequate sun exposure, additionally should likewise be considered <3,4>. Finally, really recent studies present that attention must be payment to iodine intake, because plant-based diets can be low in iodine <15,34>.
In bespeak to select those foods items that could administer the nutrients of interest, and also list the nutritional composition of the portions usually consumed by children and adolescents, we used obtainable information about details foods and also their macro- and also micronutrient contents by portion serving dimension <25>. Us adapted section sizes indigenous a previously developed semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire for vegans and also vegetarians in which parts of foods generally consumed through this population had been consisted of <35>. Nutrient worths of every selected food were obtained from the Spanish Food composition Database <36> and, when necessary, from various other databases, such as the United states Nutrient Database <37> or the Finnish Food composition Database <38>. A food portion composition database was created. Food groups were selected follow to your nutritional profile. Foodstuffs were share into teams according come the predominant nutrient: (1) grains, potatoes, and also legumes as foods items containing mostly carbohydrates; (2) plant protein-rich commodities as the foodstuffs providing largely protein; (3) oils, nuts and seeds as foods providing largely lipids; (4) soybean beans products, strengthened plant drinks and other calcium-rich products; (5) fruits and also vegetables as necessary sources the vitamins and also minerals; and also (6) Occasional foods items as sugars and also baked products.
Foods were put in the different food exchange lists follow to your nutritional composition. All the quantities were defined in grams, and also were convert into household measures and section sizes. After an interpretation of the food groups, the quantity of every food that could be exchanged with any type of other food in the very same group, based upon their comparable nutritional value, to be determined. In this regard, different amounts of each food were presented in the calibration software program <38> and also main macronutrient worths of each one to be compared, for this reason the most appropriate quantities for equivalent lists might be selected. Following a previously published methodology for making food exchange lists <17>, we arisen food exchange teams by calculating the mean, traditional deviation (SD) and also coefficient of sport (CV) worths for energy, macronutrients (protein, carbohydrate and also fat), and also micronutrients (calcium, iron, zinc, vitamin B12 and also vitamin D). Come validate foods items within a list, we considered the recommended worths of SD used by Wheeler and colleagues <39> in exchange lists for energy and also macronutrients (energy: 20 kcal, carbohydrates: 5 g, fat: 2 g, and protein: 3 g). If SD values were outside the limits, quantities of foodstuffs with higher SD to be modified or the food was removed from that list and appropriately placed in one more list so that it would fit that macronutrient contents within the list. As soon as the SD was adjusted, the CV was additionally analysed, aiming for values much less than 30%; and also macronutrients and energy components were matched. A CV of less than 30% was sought for energy and at the very least two macronutrients. For groups with greater values of CV, the Z value for each food was calculated. We created as criterion Z values in between −2 and also +2, in order come exclude foods with high sport <17>. The power value of every exchange group was calculate by multiply the content of protein, fats and also carbohydrates assigned to each exchange list by the Atwater factors. The main criteria for defining food exchange lists to be energy and macronutrients content, but the statistical worths of medium of funds were also included therefore the donation of every group and also subgroup to the result menu can be monitored. In all cases, the amounts in grams tested were established based upon common cooking measures, come facilitate dietetic techniques (e.g., 10 g oil, 2 teaspoons) or top top usual part sizes (e.g., tree drink, 1 cup 200 mL) or on tiny amounts deliberately created so they can be conveniently converted into smaller or bigger food sections if crucial (e.g., textured soybean beans protein, 30 g, 3 tablespoons).
Three period groups were characterized according to their nutritional requirements (1–3 years, 4–10 years, and 11–17 years). The median value that Dietary recommendation Intakes (DRIs) because that boys and also girls was calculated according to the Dietary reference Values for nutrient from the european Food safety Authority (EFSA) summary report <40>. As energy needs different depending not just on age and also sex, but likewise on the level the physical activity (from sedentary to moderately active), a range of energy requirements was considered (from 900 to 3000 kcal/day). Reference values of body weight and physical task levels native 1 to 17 years were extracted native the EFSA summary report <40>.
The variety of portions of every food exchange team was defined so the the resulting menu listed intakes the at the very least 90% of the europe Dietary referral intakes (DRI) <40> for energy, protein, n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, calcium, iron, zinc, and vitamins D and also B12. The wanted percentage of energy listed by carbohydrates and fats was developed as 50–55 and 30–35 percent of full daily power respectively. For the analysis of protein, both the needs per kg that body weight <40> and also the preferred 10–15% that the full energy listed by this nutrient to be taken into account. The wanted percentage that energy noted by protein corresponded with an amount in total grams that was greater than the amount acquired from the DRI, and that to be the number selected because that the calculations.
The macronutrient (protein, carbohydrate, fat) and micronutrient (calcium, iron, zinc, vitamin B12, vitamin D, n-3 fat acids) worths (mean, SD and also CV values) assigned to each food list, ~ subjecting them to the rounding criteria and also the energy value calculation by the Atwater system, are shown in Table 1. ~ calculating the content of various other nutrients in the portions tested, the main groups were separated into subgroups, follow to the contents of other nutrients. Grains and also tubers are the first group. The sections of grains, including those commonly consumed by vegans (millet, spelt, barley, rye, quinoa, bulgur, kamut) were readjusted (60 g bread, 40 g dried or life cereals, 200 g potato) in stimulate to keep the SD worths of the totality group constant. Generally consumed legumes (beans, lentils, and chickpeas) as well as other types of legumes such as soy beans, adzuki, or mungo beans and also lupins were additionally included in this group, since they contribute carbohydrates to the diet (13.0 (2.2) g). However, lock also carry out protein (6.9 (0.9) g) and also therefore they are consisted of in a details subgroup. Protein was the key macronutrient in the tree protein-rich foods group (12.9 (1.9) g), which has tempeh, seitan, textured soy protein, and vegan burgers and similar meat substitutes; they additionally contribute calcium (60.3 (17) mg), and also iron (2.5 (1.4) mg). To be taken into consideration in this group vegan meat-alternatives had to be made v legumes, tofu, tempeh, seitan, textured soybean beans protein, or a mixture of this ingredients, and also had to carry out at the very least 10grams of protein every portion. Some vegan meat-alternatives are fortified with vitamin B12 and also may be a resource of this nutrient. Seeds normally consumed through vegans (flax, sesame, chia, sunflower, and pumpkin seeds) and nuts (almonds, cashews, hazelnuts, pistachios, pine tree nuts, walnuts) space a source of protein, yet when nutrient contents by parts (20 g) to be considered, the protein worth was short (3.6 (1.3) g) and therefore insufficient for nuts and also seeds come be contained in the tree protein-rich group. Another important team in the vegan food sample is the vegetable fat-rich team as they provide energy, necessary fatty acids and also other micronutrients. Different vegetable oils, oily fruits, nuts, seeds, and also spreads generally consumed through vegans to be included. Polyunsaturated fatty acids to be the key constituents, either as n-3 fatty acids in flaxseed and also flaxseed oil, and/or as omega-6 in canola, soy, sunflower, walnut, sesame, and also pumpkin seeds oils. Based upon the nutritional evaluation performed on this group, and taking right into account conveniently household procedures for exchange portions, three subgroups were created: (2) Oils and oily fruits, (3) nuts, seeds, and their butters (tahini, peanut, and also almond paste), and (4) n-3 fatty acids sources, consisting of walnut, flax and chia seeds, and walnut and also flaxseed oil. In vegetable diets, number of calcium-rich foods are proposed as a substitute because that milk and dairy. After nutritional analysis, they to be subdivided right into (1) soy products and (2) strengthened plant drinks, because of their various protein content. The soy assets group consisted of fortified soybean beans drink, soy yogurt, and tofu. Every portion, lock were great sources (mean (SD) of calcium (136.6 (52.5) mg) and protein (5.7 (1.2) g).
Fortified tree drinks various other than soybean beans (oat drink, rice drink, and almond drink) to be considerably higher in calcium (284 (79.7) mg) but lower in protein (1.6 (1.2) g) as contrasted with soy commodities (mean (SD) every portion. Also, they provided significant amounts the vitamin B-12 (1.5 (0.9) mg) and also D (1.8 (0.3) mg), as many brands are fortified with these nutrients.
Within the vegetable food group, we differentiated cruciferous from various other vegetables, because of your calcium donation (mean (SD) per portion (139.5 (36) g), which is comparable to soy assets (136.6 (52.5) mg). This subgroup has broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, kale and Brussels sprouts. One more subgroup comprise sprouted vegetable parts (30 g) to be included. In bespeak to enhance food groups and accomplish a nutritional uniformity, portions of the most commonly consumed vegetables (chard, spinach, lettuce, endive, borage, environment-friendly bean, pea, eggplant, zucchini, cucumber, tomato, onion, pumpkin, carrot, pea, asparagus, artichoke, cardoon, mushrooms) were characterized on the communication of a previously published Spanish food exchange perform (100 come 200 g) <17>.
The fruit group includes frequently whole fresh fruit. Similarly to the vegetables group, different quantities of parts of fruits (orange, grapefruit, tangerine, nectarine, banana, apple, pear, blueberry blackberry raspberry, acerola, strawberry, cherry, plum, peach, apricot, watermelon, melon, pineapple, fig, pomegranate, mango, kiwi, jujube, and grape) were thought about (100–250 g) <17>, and also dried fruits (30 g) were had (raisin, dried plum, dried fig, date, and also dried apricot/ peach). This portions added a median sugar content of 15.1 g (2.5 g).
We included a team containing the most common sweeteners and baked products, due to the fact that they space consumed by countless children and adolescents. Nevertheless, us did not count them in the direction of the complete caloric and nutritional requirements. Portions of the sugars group (white and also brown sugar, soluble cocoa, jam, molasses, syrup, and also candies) only added sugar (10.0 (1.8) g) and also calories (40 (3.5) kcal) to the diet, whereas baked products and pastries (cookies-including whole-wheat cookies, cacao cookies, cake, croissant, donut, cupcake, batons, or pastries) contributed additionally lipids (5.9 (0.1) g).Although these foodstuffs may carry out some micronutrients, their key contribution is typically sugar and also saturated fats; thus they must be consumed only occasionally.
The variety of portions of every group and also subgroup is proposed in Table 2. Taking right into account the level of physics activity, energy and also nutritional requirements, three age groups to be considered: native 1 come 3 years, native 4 to 10 years, and also from 11 to 17 years. In each group various daily caloric requirements were considered, depending upon the age, sex, and level of physical activity. Daily nutritional intakes to be calculated by multiply the mean nutritional values of every group detailed in Table 1 through the number of portions assigned to each period subgroup. The percentages of complete energy indigenous fat, protein, and also carbohydrates were within the following ranges 30–35:10–15:50–55, respectively. Median protein needs for youngsters and teenagers (EFSA) and also intakes of at the very least 90% the DRI of necessary fatty acids, vitamins and minerals to be ensured. Various numbers of daily portions for meal planning were considered.
Some elements of this meal planning deserve consideration: (1) as legumes contribute carbohydrates and protein, each part of legumes consumed instead of grains might replace one offer of plant protein-rich foods; (2) native 1 to 10 years, the is vital to pick daily 2 out of these 3 groups: soy products, plant protein-rich foods, or legumes. If the diet walk not include soy products, an ext legumes or tree protein-rich foods items should be spend instead; (3) higher intake of seed or nuts than is presented in the table would add to the full protein intake: 2 portions a day in children consuming 900–1700 kcal or 4 portions a job in the rest of kids could change one section of legumes, soy commodities or plant protein-rich foods; (4) to reach an adequate intake that n-3 fat acids, a minimum that one section of walnuts, flax seeds, chia seeds, or flax or walnut oils must be included in all of the patterns proposed; (5) calcium and also vitamin D intakes rise notably when fortified plant beverages are chosen. As presented in Table 2, vegetable diets carry out not provide enough vitamin B-12 and vitamin D. Selecting fortified milk substitutes, meat analogues, or breakfast cereals could administer variable quantities of these 2 vitamins, however supplementation is always recommended. Vitamin D supplementation can not be crucial if sunlight exposure is sufficient, however this should be evaluate individually. As have the right to be seen in Table 2, through the exemption of vitamins D and B12, nutritional requirements are quickly met with generally consumed vegetable foods, in both low and also high caloric dietary trends (900–3000 kcal/day).
Finally, using the vault information regarding food groups, portions, and nutritional content, some dietary referrals for food selection are provided in Table 3.
We existing here the very first practical tool particularly designed to facilitate vegan meal planning in children and adolescents. The is based upon the exact same methodology that has actually been offered for the advance of exchange lists previously <17,39>, and includes typically foods spend by vegans.
We have presented that by selecting the proposed variety of portions from each subgroup of foodstuffs the requirements of crucial nutrients in vegan diets (protein, calcium, iron, zinc, n-3 fat acids), are conveniently met. Requirements of vitamins D and also B12 can theoretically it is in covered too if fortified foodstuffs are included, but due to the fact that of the broad variability on the level of fortification among these products, that is advisable the these nutrients are listed mainly as supplements <3,6,16>. One more aspect to take into consideration is that several of these fortified products may it is in high in sugar or salt and therefore no the best option in the lengthy term. Vitamin D supplements can not be crucial in youngsters and teenagers who live in lower latitude areas and also spend constant time outdoors.
Although follow to the American Academy the Nutrition well-planned vegetables diets are adequate for children of every ages, this walk not average that every vegan youngsters are receiving adequate nutrition. This might be partly because of an inappropriate choice of foods caused by untrue nutritional counselling or by lack of counselling at all. Publicly nutrition projects have to be traditionally handle to family members following non-vegetarian diets. Similarly, nutrition education in schools and nutrition training for health professionals have been focused on non-vegan foods and also non-vegan meal-planning; the nutritional demands of vegan youngsters have received small attention. We hope that this tool deserve to be supplied to enhance the education and learning of both wellness professionals and also families, which together a an outcome will improve nutritional condition in vegetable children and also adolescents.
As mentioned before, iodine is a nutrient that increasing worry in vegan populations as the iodine contents in plant foods items is usually low <34>. Since the iodine contents of plants differs greatly depending on the geographic region, we have actually not had this nutrient in our analysis. The human being Health company recommends salt iodization as the finest strategy to stop iodine deficiency disorders worldwide <41> and therefore vegans should be encouraged to use iodized salt at home. This strategy however has two limitations: (1) vice versa, in some nations (i.e., Denmark) salt is consistently iodized and also its usage is mandatory in commercially developed foods prefer bread <42>, other countries like the united Kingdom, still do not iodize your salt <43,44,45>; and (2) countless health aware vegans have decreased or got rid of the use of included salt in your meals. Seaweed may be a valuable source of iodine for vegans, yet the iodine contents varies between different varieties and part may have actually excessive amounts of iodine <46>. Since of the important after-effects of iodine deficiency at every ages, but especially in infants and young children, and also during pregnancy and breastfeeding, it would be desirable to build lists the iodine sources as well as recommendations on iodine intakes for vegans.
This study has some limitations. First, us assumed the use of fortified foods to carry out calcium requirements, but these commodities are not always easily accessible or preferred by all families. Second, we are aware that vegan diets, as other dietary patterns, includes a great variety of recipes that include variable quantities of macro- and micronutrients. Due to the fact that they perform not fit right into one exchange list, arising some guidelines around the variety of exchanges every dish should be useful. Also, the practicality and also effectiveness the this food exchange mechanism in a clinical setup has not been tested; and also this must be done in future studies.
The food exchange mechanism was chosen because we consider food exchange lists an extremely useful to menu planning, because it can be provided in individualized dietetic plan or nutrition education. There space other approaches for guaranteeing adequate nutrient provision such as direct programming that regulates very precisely the variety of calories and macro- and micronutrients in the diet <47>. Nevertheless, it is also important come use approaches in i beg your pardon quantities can be quickly converted right into food portions indistinguishable to family measures commonly used (spoons, dishes, commercial units), specifically in children and also adolescents. Also, the is crucial to be able to choose several foods items within a list in order come respect an individual preferences (gastronomic and/or cultural). In this sense, as discussed by other authors the management and also adherence come the diet over time is far better maintained through tools such together the exchange perform <48>.
We have actually not handle in this post the details nutritional demands of babies younger than 1 year. The main resource of nutrients throughout the very first year is chest milk (or formula milk for women who perform not wish to breastfeed). The arrival of the first solid foods roughly 6 months of age and the gradual procedure of weaning is a critical period in regards to nutrition. Vegan households need and have the same appropriate as the remainder of the population to receive high quality skilled advice about appropriate food selections for their babies and also young children.
These food exchange device specifically arisen for children and teenagers following a vegan diet have the right to be offered by health professionals to setup balanced vegan meals. They can additionally be a helpful tool for the education and learning of both vegan families and health professionals.
Conceptualization, S.M.-P. And also I.M.-L.; methodology, S.M.-P. And I.M.-L., software program S.M.-P., validation. S.M.-P. And I.M.-L., investigation, S.M.-P.; writing—original breeze preparation, S.M.-P. I.M.-L., writing—review and editing, M.M.-B., visualization, M.M.-B.; supervision, I.M.-L.; job administration, I.M.-L.

References

Investigation the Iodine Intake and Thyroid conditions (DanThyr) study. Br, J. Nutr. 2008, 100, 166–173.

Table 1.Food groups and subgroups v the portion exchanges proposed because that the much more representative foods items of each list expressed in grams and also in family measures v the typical energy, macronutrients, and selected micronutrients contents per team or subgroup. Data of SD, CV are included.
Table 1.Food groups and subgroups v the portion exchanges proposed because that the an ext representative foods items of each list expressed in grams and also in family measures through the mean energy, macronutrients, and selected micronutrients content per group or subgroup. Data the SD, CV are included.

Table 2.Suggested number of portions of every group and subgroup because that vegan kids and teens considering nutritional requirements and physical task levels (from sedentary come moderately energetic 1)
Table 2.Suggested number of portions of every group and also subgroup for vegan children and teens considering nutritional requirements and also physical activity levels (from sedentary to moderately active 1)
1–3 Years4–10 Years11–17 YearsFood Groups and Subgroups900 kcal1200 kcal1400 kcal1700 kcal2000 kcal2100 kcal2400 kcal2700 kcal3000 kcal
Grains and tubers344556689
Legumes111222222
Soy products111111122
Fortified tree drinks 1111222
Plant protein-rich group****11112
Fresh and also sprouted vegetables111122222
Cruciferous vegetables111111111
Fruits223333445
Vegetable oils222333444
Nuts. Seeds and spreads 11122222
n-3 fatty mountain sources 0.50.511111
Energy DRI extended (%)10710110010110010299102101
Protein (g) 2233035435053606875
% covered153143133137154156141148158
Carbohydrates (g) 2124165193234275289330371413
% covered1091001011009095929799
Fat (g) 235475466788293105117
% covered858784879491948984
n-3 (g) 30,50,70,80,91,11,21,31,51,7
Energy DRI covered (%)10710110010110010299102101
Protein (g) 2233035435053606875
% covered153143133137154156141148158
Carbohydrates (g) 2124165193234275289330371413
% covered1091001011009095929799
Fat (g) 235475466788293105117
% covered858784879491948984
n-3 (g) 30.50.70.80.91.11.21.31.51.7
% DRI covered208165260260369354333317329
n-6 (g) 34.05.36.27.68.99.310.71213.3
% DRI covered270264236264271258275245220
Vitamin B12 (g) 4.51.51.51.52.52.53.53.53.53.5
% DRI covered------102619165108108129
Calcium (mg) 44504508008008001150115011501150
% DRI covered9310610010712689116131140
Iron (mg) 47711111112121212
% DRI covered183218161196241231250282324
Zinc (mg) 44.34.35.57.47.410.710.71111
% DRI covered154193175165196144154173192

*: tree protein-rich team at this period is optional and may it is in alternated with the legumes or the soy assets groups. 1 Dietary recommendation intakes because that micronutrients. And also fatty acids and energy requirements calculated for each period group and physical activity level according EFSA DRI report. 2 Protein fat and also carbohydrate covered considered as 10–15, 30–35, and also 50–55 percent of total energy, respectively. 3 n-3 and n-6 requirements covered considered as 0.5 and also 4 percent of total energy, respectively. 4 Vitamins and minerals extended considering DRI in specific age group. 5 Vitamin B12 and also D requirements covered only if strengthened plant drinks or strengthened vegan meat alternatives are included. .

Food Groups and also SubgroupsPractical Recommendations
1. Grains and derivatives, tubers, and also legumes- entirety grain cereals should be preferred over refined grains.Some breakfast cereals are fortified with vitamin D and also vitamin B-12.Soaking and sprouting grains and legumes prior to cooking lock may boost iron and zinc bioavailability; a comparable effect may occur with sour leavening (sourdough bread).
2. Soy products and fortified plant drinksSoy commodities count as fifty percent portion the the plant protein-rich group. If soy assets are not consumed, the intake of legumes and/or tree protein-rich assets should be increased.It is recipient to select calcium-fortified plant drinks; the is desirable yet not necessary if castle are likewise fortified with vitamins D and also B12.
3. Plant protein-rich groupAlthough some foods of this group are fortified with vitamin B-12, daily or weekly supplementation according to indict is recommended.It is recipient to choose vegan burgers, sausages, and also other vegan meats that are made using unsaturated fats and that have a low salt content.
4. Vegetables: cruciferous and other vegetablesIf fortified plant drinks are not consumed, the is recipient to increase the number of portions of cruciferous vegetables (as well as calcium-rich nuts and also seeds—chia, sesame, almonds) and also calcium-set tofu.It is advisable to incorporate carotenoid-rich vegetables on regular basis (sweet potato, carrot, pepper, spinach, pumpkin) together they space the main resource of vitamin A in vegetables diets.
5. Fruits: fresh and driedDried fruits are especially valuable in kids and teenagers with higher caloric requirements, and also as they are additionally a an excellent source the vitamins and minerals room preferable to baked assets or sweets.
6. Oils, nuts, seeds and also spreadsOlive and rapeseed oils need to be liked over sunflower, soy and other n-6 wealthy vegetable oils. In ~ least fifty percent to one part in this group should be wealthy in n-3 fat acids.Two parts of seeds or nuts count together one section of legumes in terms of protein content.If tree drinks room not calcium-fortified, the is advisable to include one extra portion of sesame seed or sesame dough (tahini).
7. Occasional foods:Sugars and baked productsSweets and baked commodities are not essential and should be consumed in moderation (not more than one portion per day). Baked products and pastries would count together one section of the grain team plus one portion of oils, seeds, nuts and spreads; however, your nutritional value in terms of micronutrients is lot poorer.If plant drinks are sweetened lock count as a section of sugar.

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