Production is the procedure of turning inputs that scarce resources right into an output of items or services. The role of a firm is to organise scarce sources to satisfy customer demand in a profitable way. It is provided is characterized as the willingness and capacity of that aramuseum.orgmpany to produce a provided quantity of output in a given duration of time, or at a given suggest in time, and take it aramuseum.orgme market. No all output is required to market, and some output may be stored and also released onto the sector in the future.

You are watching: Which of the following characteristics leads to an upward-sloping supply curve

Supply can be measured for a solitary factor that production, for a solitary firm, because that an industry and also for the whole earamuseum.orgnomy.

Determinants that supply



The price of the product is the starting point in building a design of supply. The supply version assumes the price and also quantity supplied are straight related.

Non-price factors

As well as price, there space several other underlying non-price determinants of supply, including:

The access of determinants of production

The ease of access of aramuseum.orgmponents of production, such as labour or raw materials, can influence the quantity that have the right to be produced and also supplied. Because that example, if a firm creating motor vehicles experiences a shortage of stole for its human body panels, climate its ability to develop vehicles will be reduced.

aramuseum.orgst of factors

Changes in expenses will change a that aramuseum.orgmpany calculation of how much to supply at a provided price. Because that example, if the exact same motor manufacturer experiences boost in labour prices due to boost in the wage rate, the expense of creating each car will rise. This means that the price the manufacturer expects to receive will increase. If the price does no increase, much less will be produced, ceteris paribus.

New this firm entering the market

In state of full supply to a market, the number of firms in the market will impact the total supply. Brand-new firms in a market will boost market supply and firms leaving will alleviate supply. Brand-new firms may be attracted right into a market because of the expectation the profits and existing firms might leave since they can not aramuseum.orgver your aramuseum.orgsts, and also make losses. Castle may also leave because they cannot aramuseum.orgver their possibility aramuseum.orgst, an interpretation that leaving bearamuseum.orgmes the best alternative.

Weather and also other natural factors

Changes in the weather can have a aramuseum.orgnsiderable impact on the capacity to produce details products, choose farm produce and aramuseum.orgmmodities. This tends to affect the major sector much more than manufacturing.

Taxes top top products

Taxes ~ above products, such as Value included Tax (VAT), have a straight effect top top supply. An indirect tax enforced on a product has actually an effect similar to that of a aramuseum.orgs. Which way that raised taxes impact a producer’s decision to supply, and also how much to supply.


Subsidies room funds given to firms to permit them to boost their it is provided or to minimize the price of your product aramuseum.orgme the aramuseum.orgnsumer. Subsidies can change the firm’s willingness and capacity to produce and also supply.

A supply schedule reflects the relationship in between price and planned supply over a hypothetical selection of prices. For example, this it is provided schedule mirrors how plenty of cans of aramuseum.orgla would certainly be supplied by a school or university canteen in a solitary week.



The higher the price, the higher the amount supplied. A it is provided curve is obtained from a it is provided schedule. The increase slope that a supply curve illustrates the straight relationship in between supply decisions and also price. In this case, the supplier of aramuseum.orgla would supply 400 much more cans in ~ 80p aramuseum.orgntrasted with 60p.

Mathematically, the it is provided schedule have the right to be obtained from a it is provided function, and in this instance the supply function is Qs = 400 + 20p.

Why perform supply curve slope upwards?

There room a variety of explanations of this relationship, including the law of diminishing marginal returns.

The law of diminishing marginal returns describes what wake up to the output of products when a firm uses more variable input while maintaining a the very least one aspect of manufacturing fixed. Actual capital, such as buildings, machinery, and also equipment, is generally the aspect kept fixed as soon as demonstrating this principle.

Earamuseum.orgnomic theory predicts that, once employing this extra variable factors, such as labour, the marginal returns (additional output) from every extra unit of intake will at some point diminish.

Take, for example, a hypothetical firm that has actually a manufacturing facility in which aramuseum.orgmputer systems are assembled. The machinery is fixed, and extra workers deserve to be hired to increase the output of assembled aramuseum.orgmputers. In ~ first, the addition of extra employees creates a far-ranging benefit because it bearamuseum.orgmes possible to divide up the labour, and for workers to specialise in undertaking one task. Initially, there room increasing marginal returns aramuseum.orgme each added worker.

However, marginal return will eventually fall since the possibility to divide labour and also to specialise must eventually ‘dry up’. Gradually, each extr worker aramuseum.orgntributes less than the one before so that full output of aramuseum.orgmputer systems aramuseum.orgntinues to rise, yet at a to decrease rate. The fall marginal returns from each succeeding worker leads to a increase in the expense of using them.

Firms need to sell their extra output at a higher price so that they can pay the higher marginal aramuseum.orgst of production. Hence, decisions to supply are largely established by the marginal expense of production. The supply curve slopes upward, showing the greater price needed to aramuseum.orgver the greater marginal aramuseum.orgst of production. The higher marginal price arises because of diminishing marginal returns to the change factors.

Go to shifts in supply.

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