Rochelle Collins, DO, is a board-certified family medicine doctor currently practicing in Bloomfield, Connecticut." data-inline-tooltip="true">Rochelle Collins, DO

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The skin is component of the integumentary system, which likewise includes the nails, hair, and exocrine glands. That is an incredibly large organ, accounting for 15% of one adult's complete body weight.

Total skin thickness varies relying on where the is discovered on the body. The thickest skin is found on the back, the palms of the hands, and also the bottoms of the feet, where it deserve to be up to 3 millimeter (mm) thick. The thinnest skin is uncovered on the eyelid, whereby the epidermis measures just 0.05 mm through very small dermis and subcutaneous fat.

The three significant layers that the skin every contain specialized cells, tissues, and also appendages, and also each performs distinct functions because that the body.

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The epidermis is the outermost great of the skin, the class of skin i beg your pardon is visible. The epidermis is likewise the thinnest that the three skin layers. That is an avascular skin layer, so it does not contain blood vessels.

This tough layer is chiefly comprised of keratin and epithelial cells, stack in tightly-packed sheets. It is in a state of continuous renewal, as brand-new skin cells space continuously created while older cells space sloughed away in a procedure called desquamation.

Keratinocytes: The vast bulk of the epidermis is comprised of keratinocytes. Keratinocytes room cells the manufacture keratin, the structure protein that provides up skin, hair, and nails. Keratin is what creates the protective, water-resistant barrier of the skin.Langerhans cells: these account for just a small variety of cells within the epidermis, yet have crucial function. Langerhan"s cell are dedicated cells that job-related with the immune mechanism to defend the skin from foreign pathogens.Merkel cells: these touch receptor cells are most countless in high tactile locations such as the fingertips, lips, and around the hair shaft. These cells secrete a chemical the relays information directly to the brain, allowing the skin come sense also the lightest touch.

The epidermis chin is made up of four layers, v some locations having a committed fifth epidermal layer.

Keratinocytes go through radical changes as they travel from the deepest class of the epidermis whereby they are "born," to the height layer whereby they ultimately slough away. The whole cell turnover process from cabinet birth come sloughing away takes, top top average, about 28 days come complete.

Stratum basale: This is the deepest class of the epidermis, and also is comprised of a single layer the basal cells. It is from this column-shaped cells that keratinocytes are created. Melanocytes and also Merkel cells are additionally found in this layer. The stratum basale is additionally called the basal class or stratum germinativum.Stratum spinosum: This is the thickest class of the epidermis. Together cells experience mitosis (cell division) in the layer below, the newly-formed keratinocytes are driven up right into the stratum spinosum. Likewise found in this layer are Langerhan's cells.Stratum granulosum: As new keratinocytes are thrust up into this class they continue to readjust in size and also shape, becoming harder and also flatter, producing a great that has a granular appearance. The cell nucleus and organelles start to dice in this layer, leave behind tough keratin.Stratum lucidum: This is the devoted fifth class of the epidermis, and also it is found only top top the palms that the hands and also soles that the feet. It adds an extra layer of security to these areas. The layer is made up of dead, planarization cells.Stratum corneum: likewise called the horny layer, this is the uppermost layer of the epidermis. The is consisted of of tightly-packed, keratinized cells. As soon as they've reached this layer, keratinocytes have died, flattened, hardened, and are now dubbed corneocytes. These cells produce the waterproof, protective obstacle of the skin surface. As brand-new corneocytes space created and also pushed to the surface, old corneocytes room shed.


The dermis is the center layer that the skin. The dermis is the layer that provides skin it's structure and also elasticity.

The papillary layer is the great closest to the epidermis. The dermis and epidermis are connected by finger-like projections dubbed dermal papillae. The dermal papillae send nutrient to the epidermis with a process called diffusion. Within the papillary layer are an abundance of tiny blood vessels, phagocytes (protective cells that ingest pathogens), nerve fibers, and tactile receptors referred to as corpuscles.

The reticular layer is the thicker of the two dermal layers. That is primarily made up of yarn of collagen and elastin. This provides the dermis strength and allows it come stretch.

Sudoriferous glands: these are also known as sweat glands, of i beg your pardon there space two types—eccrine and also apocrine. Eccrine glands space coiled glands which create sweat and also are an essential in helping regulate body temperature. This glands additionally excrete little amounts of garbage product such as urea, lactic and uric acid, ammonia. Apocrine are numerous in the armpit and also groin area and also aren"t active until puberty. The apocrine glands develop a kind of sweat the is conveniently digested through bacteria and also is responsible for resulting in body odor.Arrector pili muscle: The arrector pili muscle is a small muscle that is attached to the basic of a hair. When it contracts, it creates a goosebump and makes the hair stand on end.Ceruminous glands: These devoted glands, only uncovered in the dermis in ~ the ear canal, develop earwax.Lymph vesselsBlood vesselsSensory receptors

Subcutaneous great

The upper 2 layers of the skin sit atop the subcutaneous tissue. This class is sometimes dubbed the hypodermis or panniculus.

This class is primarily comprised of fatty tissue dubbed adipose tissue. This is where the human body reserves that is fat stores.

The subcutaneous layer is additionally made up of loose connective tissue, bigger blood vessels, and also nerves. This layer help connects the top skin come the musculature below.

This layer different in thickness depending on where it's discovered on the human body (it's thickest ~ above the buttocks, palms, and also feet) and age, sex, and health of one individual.

Anatomical sport

Skin thickness different by age. The skin becomes significantly thicker until about age 40, once it reverses the course and also slowly thins. These changes occur mostly in the dermis.

There is part indication that men, biologically, have as whole thicker skin than women. part studies, though, have found no far-ranging difference between the thickness of male versus female skin.

Skin pigmentation likewise varies from individual to individual. Skin pigmentation is chiefly the an outcome of melanin. When most human being have around the same number of melanocytes, the amount of melanin produced by those melanocytes varies greatly. The more melanin the skin has, the darker the skin color. Carotene and hemoglobin likewise play a component in skin pigmentation, yet to a lesser degree.


The main purpose of the skin is to serve as an body organ of protection⁠—from injury, infection, UV radiation, and also moisture loss.

The skin create a form of armor, a physical obstacle to prevent pathogens from entering the body. In addition, sebum is slightly acidic, developing an atmosphere that isn't best for harmful microbes.

But, if the skin is damaged (by a cut, scrape, burn, etc.) it create a chink in the armor enabling those pathogens accessibility to the body. This can permit an infection to take hold.

The subcutaneous layer particularly acts as a cushion to safeguard the more delicate bones and also musculature beneath.

The skin likewise protects the human body from UV rays. As discussed before, melanin acts as a form of shield, blocking UV light so it cannot penetrate farther 보다 the upper skin tissues. Sunlight exposure triggers the melanocytes to create much more melanin, as the skin make the efforts to defend itself from further damage (in other words, the skin do the efforts to create a stronger shield). The creation of melanin is what reasons the skin to tan, and also is one indication of sunlight damage.

The skin is also crucial to preventing excess water loss. The epidermis create a barrier that helps slow-moving down the evaporation of water, as well as prevents overabundance water indigenous being took in into the skin while bathing or swimming.


The plethora the nerve endings found in the skin permits the human body to detect emotion of pressure, temperature, and also pain. Sensory receptor are uncovered throughout the skin, room especially numerous throughout the dermis.

When the human body is acquiring too cool (hypothermia) the arrector pili muscles cause the hair to stand up, providing you goosebumps. The slim layer of wait trapped in between the hair and also the body acts together an insulator helping to heat the body.

The blood vessels within the dermis also constrict, a process called vasoconstriction. Constricting the ship at the skin's surface allows the skin come cool while keeping the warmed blood for the body's core and crucial organs.

When the body is ending up being too warm, the sudoriferous glands release sweat. Together the sweat evaporates, that cools the skin.

The blood vessels also play a role here in cooling the body by dilating (vasodilation). The ship relax, allowing an ext blood to circulation from the body's core, bringing warm with it. The warmth then dissipates v the skin.

synthetic of Vitamin D

The skin is responsible for developing the bulk of vitamin D the is necessary by the body. The skin consists of molecules called 7-dehydrocholesterol. Once these molecules are hit by UVB beam of sunlight, they room converted right into vitamin D3. Vitamin D3 is then converted right into the active form of vitamin D with the kidneys.

The quantity of sun necessary to get an adequate amount the vitamin D varies widely and also is dependant top top a host of different components including skin tone, season, place (near the equator versus north latitudes), time the day, and the quantity of skin the is exposed. It's suggested you monitor your healthcare provider's recommendation for the right amount of sun exposure because that you.

connected Conditions

There are hundreds of conditions that affect the skin, and also they have a wide variety of causes.

bright Skin Lesions

These are noncancerous growths that are common and not harmful. (Although if you notice a brand-new growth, or alters in an currently one, you should have actually it looked in ~ by a practitioner.)

inflammatory Rashes/Conditions

There is a huge array of inflammatory problems that can impact the skin. Some space temporary, when others are chronic. Some may require treatment while others will certainly heal on your own. They frequently resemble one another, for this reason it's always a an excellent idea to acquire a diagnosis native a health care provider.


The skin is fragile to every sorts of injuries. In most cases, the skin is able come heal with it's remarkable, and also complex, process. Major injuries should constantly be treated by a medical care professional. Usual skin injuries include:

Cutaneous infections

Infections can take organize whenever there is a break in the skin obstacle that permits microbes to happen through. Infection deserve to be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi. Castle include:

famous Infections

Many conditions that don't originate in the skin can reason cutaneous symptoms. They include:

Pigmentation obstacle

These space disorders that impact the means the skin to produce melanin. Pigmentation problems can one of two people cause boost in shade (hyperpigmentation) or a lose of shade (hypopigmentation). Some pigmentation conditions are treatable if others room not.


Skin cancer is most often attached to too much sun exposure. Most forms of skin cancer are very treatable, but early detection is key.

If you have a sore that doesn't cure or keeps recurring, a new skin mole or lesion, or a readjust in size, shape, or color of an present mole, you should have it evaluate by a health care provider.

Genetic conditions

Certain genetic problems can reason the skin to not function as the should. Most are relatively rare. Castle include:

Pidermolysis bullosa - A group of problems that causes extremely fragile skin which conveniently blisters or erodesHereditary ichthyosis - A condition that causes an overgrowth of exceptionally dry, scaly skin


There are several tests that room performed ~ above the skin to assist diagnose various conditions that can influence this organ.


A skin biopsy is a procedure in which cell or skin tissue is gotten rid of for check under a microscope. A biopsy is offered to examine for skin cancer, infection, and also to assist identify specific rashes.

Punch biopsy: A one cookie-cutter like tool is supplied to eliminate a little piece of skinShave biopsy: A tongue or scalpel is provided to shave off a item of the skin surfaceExcisional biopsy: The whole lesion is removed

You will be offered a neighborhood anesthetic before the biopsy. Stitches may be offered to nearby the biopsy website in some cases.

Patch test

Patch test are common done to assist identify possible causes of call dermatitis. Adhesive spot with small pads impregnated with usual allergens are placed on the ago and left because that a duration of 48 hours. After ~ the patches space removed, the skin is confirm for indications of irritation, redness, or swelling. This permits one to recognize the substances that trigger contact dermatitis.

Woods Lamp check

A Woods lamp is a form of black light that enables a medical experienced to detect points that aren't quickly seen v the naked eye.

During an exam, you will certainly sit in a dark room. The health care provider stop a Woods lamp close to her skin to look for shade changes. The existence of certain fungi or bacteria will appear in particular colors. The borders of hyperpigmentation or hypopigmentation are more easily watched under a Woods lamp as well.

Skin Prick test

The skin prick check is a test the is perform on the skin, however isn"t provided to diagnose a skin condition. Instead, skin prick tests are supplied to recognize which building materials a person may be allergy to. This contains things that cause allergic rhinitis and also food allergies.

Skin prick exam are typically done top top the ago or on the arm. A machine with tiny points, which have been dipped in allergen extracts, is supplied to prick or scrape the skin's surface. ~ 15 come 20 minutes, the skin is examined. Any kind of inflamed bumps or wheals shown a positive reaction.

A Word native Verywell

For an body organ that is therefore visible and also familiar, the skin is surprisingly complex. As the largest organ of the human body, the skin is responsible for plenty of important functions. There space hundreds of problems that can influence the skin; countless of lock look incredibly comparable and are complicated to differentiate one native another. If needed, watch a health care provider for assist in diagnosing and treating your skin condition.

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