describe the basic molecular framework of carbohydrates, and identify their monomers and also polymers; list the three subtypes of carbohydrates, and also describe your structure and also function.

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Carbohydrates (carbo- = “carbon”; hydrate = “water”) save on computer the facets carbon, hydrogen, and also oxygen, and also only those elements with a couple of exceptions. The proportion of carbon come hydrogen to oxygen in carbohydrate molecules is 1:2:1. The ingredient carbon (C, carbo-) and also the ingredient water (H20, -hydrate) offer the name to this team of necessary molecules.

Carbohydrates are classified into three subtypes: monosaccharides, (mono- = ”one”, “alone”; saccharide = “sugar, sweet”) disaccharides (di = “two”), and polysaccharides. (poly- = “many, much”). Monosaccharides and disaccharides are likewise called simple carbohydrates, and also are generally referred to as sugars. An easy carbohydrates are little polar molecules, containing numerous –OH practical groups, which makes them hydrophilic (they dissolve fine in water). Polysaccharides, also called complex carbohydrates, are big non polar molecules, and they are not hydrophilic.

The figure below shows the most typical monosaccharides: glucose, fructose and galactose (six-carbon monosaccharides), and also ribose and deoxyribose (five-carbon monosaccharides). Note that they space all naaramuseum.org using the suffix –ose, which means sugar. Carbohydrates are frequently naaramuseum.org “somethingose”.

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Figure (PageIndex1) these monosaccharides respect the ratio 1:2:1 stated above: glucose (C6H12O6), furustos (C6H12O6), galactose (C6H12O6), ribose (C5H10O5), deoxyribose (C5H10O4, this one is missing an oxygen). Note that carbohydrates have lots that hydroxyl functional teams (-OH)

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Figure (PageIndex2) over there are different ways to stand for a glucose molecule (C6H12O6). Two of the most typical are straight-chain type (left) and ring kind (right). Carbon atoms in the vertices space not shown.

Disaccharides form by a covalent bond between two monosaccharides. This form of bond in between two monosaccharides is dubbed a glycosidic bond, and energy is neededto type it.

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Figure (PageIndex3) The disaccharide sucrose is developed when a monomer the glucose and also a monomer that fructose sign up with in a dehydration synthesis reaction to kind a glycosidic bond. In the process, a water molecule is shed (not shown in the figure). The lost water molecule is foraramuseum.org by -OH and -H presented in red. Oxygen creates covalent bonds with glucose ~ above the left, and also fructose top top the right.

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Figure (PageIndex4) The most usual disaccharides: sucrose (C12H22O11), lactose (C12H22O11), and maltose (C12H22O11)

Polysaccharides space macromolecules written of repeated units the the same structure block, monosaccharides, an in similar way to a pearl necklace is written of many pearls. Us can likewise define polysaccharides together polymers assembled from countless smaller covalently bonded monomers. As shown in the Figures and also Table below, three vital polysaccharides in life organisms space glycogen, starch and also cellulose. Glycogen and starch are offered as power stores in animal and plant cell respectively, if cellulose provides structural support in plants and also fiber come our diets.

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