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Key People:Pierre-Eugène-Marcellin BerthelotGeorge A. OlahCharles-Adolphe Wurtz...(Show more)Related Topics:StyreneBenzeneolefinXyleneNaphthalene...(Show more)

A hydrocarbon is any of a course of organic chemicals made up of just the facets carbon (C) and also hydrogen (H). The carbon atoms join together to kind the frame of the compound, and the hydrogen atoms affix to lock in plenty of different configurations.


Hydrocarbons space the principal constituents that petroleum and natural gas. They serve as fuels and also lubricants and raw products for the production of plastics, fibres, rubbers, solvents, explosives, and also industrial chemicals.


Nineteenth-century chemists classified hydrocarbons as either aliphatic or fragrant on the communication of your sources and properties.

Hydrocarbons comprise fossil fuels. Among the main spin-offs of fossil fuel combustion is carbon dioxide (CO2). The ever-increasing usage of fossil fuels in industry, transportation, and construction has added large amounts the CO2 to earth atmosphere. Atmospheric CO2 concentrations fluctuated between 275 and 290 parts per million by volume (ppmv) of dry air between 1000 CE and the late 18th century however had raised to 316 ppmv by 1959 and rose come 412 ppmv in 2018. CO2 behaves as a greenhouse gas—that is, that absorbs infrared radiation (net heat energy) emitted from earth surface and also reradiates it back to the surface. Thus, the considerable CO2 boost in the atmosphere is a major contributing element to human-induced worldwide warming.


Global warming
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Climate change
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hydrocarbon, any type of of a class of organic chemical compounds composed only of the aspects carbon (C) and hydrogen (H). The carbon atoms sign up with together to kind the structure of the compound, and the hydrogen atoms affix to them in countless different configurations. Hydrocarbons room the major constituents of petroleum and also natural gas. They serve as fuels and also lubricants as well as raw products for the production of plastics, fibres, rubbers, solvents, explosives, and industrial chemicals.

Many hydrocarbons occur in nature. In addition to consisting of fossil fuels, they are current in trees and also plants, as, because that example, in the kind of pigments referred to as carotenes that happen in carrots and also green leaves. An ext than 98 percent of natural crude rubber is a hydrocarbon polymer, a chainlike molecule consist of of plenty of units attached together. The structures and also chemistry of individual hydrocarbons depend in huge part ~ above the species of chemical bonds that link together the atom of your constituent molecules.

Nineteenth-century chemistry classified hydrocarbons together either aliphatic or aromatic on the communication of their sources and properties. Aliphatic (from Greek aleiphar, “fat”) defined hydrocarbons acquired by chemical degradation of fats or oils. Aromatic hydrocarbons comprised a group of connected substances acquired by chemical destruction of details pleasant-smelling tree extracts. The terms aliphatic and aromatic are preserved in modern terminology, but the link they explain are differentiated on the basis of structure fairly than origin.

Aliphatic hydrocarbons are divided into three main teams according come the species of bonds they contain: alkanes, alkenes, and also alkynes. Alkanes have actually only solitary bonds, alkenes save on computer a carbon-carbon dual bond, and alkynes save on computer a carbon-carbon triple bond. Aromatic hydrocarbons are those that room significantly an ext stable 보다 their Lewis frameworks would suggest; i.e., they possess “special stability.” They are classified as either arenes, i beg your pardon contain a benzene ring together a structure unit, or nonbenzenoid fragrant hydrocarbons, which possess special stability yet lack a benzene ring as a structural unit.


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This category of hydrocarbons serves together an aid in associating structural features with properties but does not need that a specific substance it is in assigned come a single class. Indeed, the is common for a molecule to incorporate structural units characteristic of 2 or much more hydrocarbon families. A molecule that contains both a carbon-carbon triple bond and also a benzene ring, because that example, would certainly exhibit part properties that room characteristic of alkynes and also others that are characteristic the arenes.

Alkanes are defined as saturated hydrocarbons, when alkenes, alkynes, and aromatic hydrocarbons are claimed to it is in unsaturated.

Aliphatic hydrocarbons

Alkanes

Alkanes, hydrocarbons in which every the bonds space single, have actually molecular formulas that satisfy the general expression CnH2n + 2 (where n is an integer). Carbon is sp3 hybridized (three electron bag are connected in bonding, forming a tetrahedral complex), and each C—C and also C—H bond is a sigma (σ) link (see chemistry bonding). In stimulate of increasing number of carbon atoms, methane (CH4), ethane (C2H6), and also propane (C3H8) room the first three members the the series.

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Methane, ethane, and propane are the only alkanes uniquely identified by their molecular formula. For C4H10 two different alkanes satisfy the rules of chemical bonding (namely, the carbon has four bonds and also hydrogen has one in neutral molecules). One compound, referred to as n-butane, where the prefix n- represents normal, has its four carbon atoms bonded in a consistent chain. The other, referred to as isobutane, has actually a branched chain.

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Different link that have the exact same molecular formula are called isomers. Isomers that differ in the stimulate in i m sorry the atoms are associated are said to have various constitutions and also are described as constitutional isomers. (An older surname is structure isomers.) The link n-butane and isobutane room constitutional isomers and also are the just ones possible for the formula C4H10. Since isomers are different compounds, they have the right to have different physical and also chemical properties. Because that example, n-butane has a higher boiling suggest (−0.5 °C <31.1 °F>) 보다 isobutane (−11.7 °C <10.9 °F>).

There is no basic arithmetic relationship between the number of carbon atom in a formula and the number of isomers. Graph theory has actually been provided to calculation the variety of constitutionally isomeric alkanes feasible for values of n in CnH2n + 2 indigenous 1 v 400. The number of constitutional isomers increases sharply together the number of carbon atom increases. Over there is probably no upper limit to the number of carbon atoms possible in hydrocarbons. The alkane CH3(CH2)388CH3, in i beg your pardon 390 carbon atoms are bonded in a consistent chain, has actually been synthesized as an example of a so-called superlong alkane. Numerous thousand carbon atoms space joined with each other in molecule of hydrocarbon polymers such as polyethylene, polypropylene, and polystyrene.


number of possible alkane isomers molecular formula number of constitutional isomers
C3H8 1
C4H10 2
C5H12 3
C6H14 5
C7H16 9
C8H18 18
C9H20 35
C10H22 75
C15H32 4,347
C20H42 366,319
C30H62 4,111,846,763

Nomenclature

The require to give each compound a distinctive name calls for a richer range of terms than is available with descriptive prefixes such as n- and also iso-. The naming of organic compounds is assisted in through the usage of formal equipment of nomenclature. Nomenclature in essential chemistry is of 2 types: common and also systematic. Common names originate in countless different ways but share the attribute that over there is no crucial connection between name and also structure. The name that synchronizes to a particular structure must merely be memorized, much like discovering the surname of a person. Systematic names, ~ above the other hand, room keyed directly to molecular framework according to a generally agreed upon set of rules. The many widely provided standards because that organic nomenclature progressed from suggestions made by a team of chemists assembled for that function in Geneva in 1892 and also have to be revised top top a continual basis by the global Union of Pure and also Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). The IUPAC rule govern every classes of organic compounds yet are ultimately based upon alkane names. Compound in other family members are perceived as obtained from alkanes by additional functional teams to, or otherwise modifying, the carbon skeleton.

The IUPAC rule assign names come unbranched alkanes according to the number of their carbon atoms. Methane, ethane, and also propane are preserved for CH4, CH3CH3, and CH3CH2CH3, respectively. The n- prefix is not provided for unbranched alkanes in organized IUPAC nomenclature; therefore, CH3CH2CH2CH3 is defined as butane, not n-butane. Beginning with five-carbon chains, the names of unbranched alkanes consists a Latin or Greek stem matching to the number of carbons in the chain adhered to by the suffix -ane. A team of link such together the unbranched alkanes that differ native one an additional by successive advent of CH2 groups constitute a homologous series.


IUPAC surname of unbranched alkanes alkane formula name alkane formula surname
CH4 methane CH3(CH2)6CH3 octane
CH3CH3 ethane CH3(CH2)7CH3 nonane
CH3CH2CH3 propane CH3(CH2)8CH3 decane
CH3CH2CH2CH3 butane CH3(CH2)13CH3 pentadecane
CH3(CH2)3CH3 pentane CH3(CH2)18CH3 icosane
CH3(CH2)4CH3 hexane CH3(CH2)28CH3 triacontane
CH3(CH2)5CH3 heptane CH3(CH2)98CH3 hectane

Alkanes with branched chain are called on the basis of the surname of the longest chain the carbon atom in the molecule, called the parent. The alkane shown has seven carbons in that is longest chain and also is therefore named together a derivative of heptane, the unbranched alkane that has seven carbon atoms. The position of the CH3 (methyl) substituent ~ above the seven-carbon chain is stated by a number (3-), referred to as a locant, obtained by successively number is numbered the carbons in the parental chain beginning at the finish nearer the branch. The compound is because of this called 3-methylheptane.

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When there room two or much more identical substituents, replicating prefixes (di-, tri-, tetra-, etc.) room used, together with a separate locant because that each substituent. Different substituents, such as ethyl (―CH2CH3) and also methyl (―CH3) groups, are cited in alphabetical order. Replicating prefixes are ignored as soon as alphabetizing. In alkanes, numbering starts at the end nearest the substituent that appears first on the chain so that the carbon to which the is attached has actually as short a number as possible.

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Methyl and ethyl are examples of alkyl groups. An alkyl group is derived from one alkane through deleting one of its hydrogens, in order to leaving a potential point of attachment. Methyl is the just alkyl team derivable indigenous methane and ethyl the just one native ethane. There room two C3H7 and four C4H9 alkyl groups. The IUPAC rules because that naming alkanes and alkyl teams cover also very facility structures and are on regular basis updated. They room unambiguous in the feeling that, back a solitary compound may have much more than one exactly IUPAC name, there is no opportunity that two different compounds will have the same name.