Main difference – Prosthetic group vs Coenzyme

Each cell possesses a unique collection of biochemical reaction that define the identification of the cell. Enzymes are the biological catalysts that catalyze the biochemical reactions. Cofactors assist the duty of the enzyme through binding to the inactive apoenzyme to produce the energetic holoenzyme. Cofactors have the right to be either not natural metal ion or tiny organic molecules. Prosthetic group and coenzyme room two species of cofactors. The main difference in between prosthetic group and coenzyme is the prosthetic group can be one of two people a steel or small organic molecule the is strictly bound to the enzyme framework either by covalent bond or non-covalent bond whereas coenzyme is a small organic molecule bound to the enzyme.

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Key areas Covered

1. What is a Prosthetic Group – Definition, Facts, Examples 2. What is a Coenzyme – Definition, Facts, Examples 3. What are the Similarities in between Prosthetic Group and Coenzyme – overview of common Features 4. What is the Difference between Prosthetic Group and Coenzyme – compare of vital Differences

Key Terms: Coenzyme, Cofactor, Covalent Bonds, Enzyme, Metalloenzymes, Prosthetic Group

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What is a Prosthetic Group

Prosthetic teams are a kind of cofactors that tie tightly to enzymes or proteins. They space bound to the enzyme v covalent or non-covalent bonds. Some cofactors tightly tie to all species of enzymes. Others space tightly-bound to part enzymes while loosely-bound to other enzymes. Pyridoxal phosphate, flavin mononucleotide (FMN), flavin adenine di nucleotide (FAD), thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP), and biotin are examples of tightly tied organic compounds. Inorganic metal ions include Co, Mn, Mg, Cu, Fe, Zn. The enzymes that are tightly-bound with metal ions are recognized as metalloenzymes. A cofactor that binding to phenylalanine hydroxylase enzyme is presented in figure 1.


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Figure 1: Cofactor


Prosthetic groups facilitate the binding and also orientation that the substrate, development of covalent bonds with the reaction intermediates, and also interaction v a substrate to do it an ext electrophilic or nucleophilic.


What is a Coenzyme

Coenzymes are little organic molecule that tie to the enzymes, assisting the function of the enzyme. They serve as intermediate carrier of electrons, specific atoms or functional teams that space to be transferred during the catalyzing reaction. Many coenzymes are acquired from the water-soluble B vitamins. NAD (nicotine adenin dinucleotide), NADP (nicotine adenine di nucleotide phosphate), FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide) (Vit.B2), CoA (coenzyme A), CoQ (coenzyme Q), thiamine (vitamin B1), pyridoxine (vitamin B6), biotin, folic acid, etc. Space the coenzymes that tie to the enzymes. Electrons, hydride ions, hydrogen atoms, methyl groups, oligosaccharides, and acyl groups are some of the chemical moieties transported by coenzymes. The transport of electron by NAD is displayed in number 2.


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Figure 2: NAD Function


Coenzymes space modified throughout the reaction and another enzyme is compelled to regain the coenzyme come its original state. Due to the fact that coenzymes space chemically changed during the reaction, lock are thought about as 2nd substrates come the enzyme. Therefore, coenzymes are likewise called co-substrates. ~ above the other hand, because coenzymes room regenerated in the body your concentrations must be preserved inside the body.

Similarities in between Prosthetic Group and Coenzyme

Prosthetic group and also coenzyme space two varieties of cofactors that assist the functioning of the enzyme.Both prosthetic group and also coenzyme room non-protein part of the enzyme.Both prosthetic group and also coenzyme deserve to be little organic molecules.

Difference between Prosthetic Group and Coenzyme

Definition

Prosthetic Group: Prosthetic groups are a kind of cofactors that room tightly-bound to the enzyme or proteins.

Coenzyme: Cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound that is tightly and also loosely bound to an enzyme or various other protein molecules.

Type that Molecule

Prosthetic Group: Prosthetic groups can it is in either metal ions or tiny organic molecules.

Coenzyme: Coenzymes are little organic molecules.

Binding

Prosthetic Group: Prosthetic groups are tightly-bound or stably-associated with the enzyme.

Coenzyme: Coenzymes room loosely-bound come the enzyme.

Correspondence

Prosthetic Group: Either coenzymes or steel ions may serve as prosthetic groups.

Coenzyme: Coenzymes have the right to be either tightly-bound (organic prosthetic groups) or loosely-bound little organic molecules.

Role

Prosthetic Group: Prosthetic team assists the work of the enzyme by binding through the apoenzyme.

Coenzyme: Coenzyme facilitates the biological revolution of the enzyme.

Removal

Prosthetic Group: Prosthetic teams are complicated to eliminate from the enzyme.

Coenzyme: Coenzymes deserve to be quickly removed from the enzyme.

Examples

Prosthetic Group: Metal ions such together Co, Mg, Cu, Fe and also organic molecule such as biotin and FAD are instances of prosthetic groups.

Coenzyme: Coenzyme A, biotin, folic acid, vitamin B12, etc. Are the instances of coenzymes.

Conclusion

Prosthetic group and coenzyme room two species of cofactors that help the work of the enzymes. Prosthetic groups can it is in tightly-bound steel ions or an easy organic molecules. Coenzymes are simple organic molecules. They deserve to be one of two people tightly or loosely-bound come the enzyme. The main difference in between prosthetic group and coenzyme is the species of bonds between each form of cofactors.

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Reference:

1. “Cofactors, Coenzymes and Prosthetic group.” Biochemistry because that Medics – class Notes, 22 June 2014, easily accessible here.

Image Courtesy:

1. “Phenylalanine hydroxylase mutations” By cutting board Shafee – Own occupational (CC through 4.0) via Commons Wikimedia2. “Fermentation alcoolique” by Pancrat – Own work (CC BY-SA 3.0) via Commons Wikimedia