outgroup A species or greater taxon used in systematics because that comparison with a group of very closely related species or taxa in bespeak to assess whether specific characters mutual by the team members are derived (see apomorphy) or ancestral (see plesiomorphy). For the outgroup comparison to it is in valid, the outgroup need to be external the phylogenetic team under consideration but not too distantly related, otherwise the comparison yields no valuable information. Because that example, the reptiles, birds, and mammals room all amniotes recognized to consist of a monophyletic group, the Amniota. Suppose that the evolution relations between several representatives of this group are gift investigated, using reproductive physiology as among a collection of homologies (see homologous). A dog and also a kangaroo both bear live young (viviparity), whereas a sparrow, a turtle, and a crocodile all lay egg (oviparity). I beg your pardon is the ancestral trait and which is the derived trait? Outgroup comparison with frogs or fishes reveals the these anamniote fellow vertebrates exhibition oviparity: this is because of this inferred together the ancestral trait for the amniotes together a whole, and hence viviparity is a acquired trait because that mammals.

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outgroup In phylogenetics, a species which is the least related come the varieties under analysis. The consists of a known outgroup allows the identification of plesiomorphic and also apomorphiccharacter states, which could otherwise remain unclear, a instance that can provide rise come topological errors. A tree that has an outgroup is claimed to be rooted.
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outgroup In phylogenetics, a varieties which is the the very least related to the varieties under analysis. The consist of of a known outgroup allows the identification of plesiomorphic and also apomorphic personality states, which might otherwise stay unclear, a case that can offer rise come topological errors. A tree that has an outgroup is claimed to it is in rooted.
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