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The Federalist, frequently referred to as the Federalist Papers, is a collection of 85 essays created by Alexander Hamilton, john Jay, and also James Madison in between October 1787 and also May 1788. The essays were released anonymously, under the pen name "Publius," in various new York state papers of the time.

The Federalist papers were written and published to urge brand-new Yorkers come ratify the suggest United says Constitution, which to be drafted in Philadelphia in the summer that 1787. In lobbying for fostering of the Constitution end the existing write-ups of Confederation, the essays explain certain provisions the the constitution in detail. Because that this reason, and because Hamilton and Madison were each members the the constitution Convention, the Federalist records are frequently used this particular day to assist interpret the intentions that those drafting the Constitution.

The Federalist files were published primarily in two new York state newspapers: The brand-new York Packet and The independent Journal. They were reprinted in other papers in new York state and also in numerous cities in other states. A bound edition, with revisions and corrections through Hamilton, was published in 1788 through printers J. And also A. McLean. One edition released by press Jacob Gideon in 1818, through revisions and corrections by Madison, was the first to recognize each essay by its author's name. Because of its publishing history, the assignment of authorship, numbering, and exact wording may vary with various editions that The Federalist.

The electronic text the The Federalist used here was compiled for project Gutenberg by scholars who attracted on many accessible versions the the papers.

One published edition of the text is The Federalist, edited by Jacob E. Cooke (Middletown, Conn., Wesleyan college Press, 1961). Cooke's advent provides background information on the printing background of The Federalist; the information detailed above comes in part from his work.

This web-friendly presentation the the original text of the Federalist files (also known as The Federalist) was acquired from the e-text archives of project Gutenberg. Any type of irregularities with regard come grammar, syntax, spelling, or punctuation space as castle exist in the initial e-text archives.


No.TitleAuthorPublicationDate
1.General IntroductionHamiltonFor the Independent Journal--
2.Concerning risks from foreign Force and also InfluenceJayFor the Independent Journal--
3.The exact same Subject Continued: worrying Dangers from international Force and also InfluenceJayFor the Independent Journal--
4.The exact same Subject Continued: concerning Dangers from international Force and InfluenceJayFor the elevation Journal--
5.The exact same Subject Continued: concerning Dangers from international Force and InfluenceJayFor the independent Journal--
6.Concerning threats from Dissensions in between the StatesHamiltonFor the Independent Journal--
7.The exact same Subject Continued: worrying Dangers from Dissensions in between the StatesHamiltonFor the Independent Journal--
8.The after-effects of Hostilities in between the StatesHamiltonFrom the New York PacketTuesday, November 20, 1787
9.The Union as a Safeguard versus Domestic Faction and InsurrectionHamiltonFor the Independent Journal--
10.The very same Subject Continued: The Union as a Safeguard versus Domestic Faction and also InsurrectionMadisonFrm the New York PacketFriday, November 27, 1787
11.The utility of the Union in Respect come Commercial Relations and also a NavyHamiltonFor the independent Journal--
12.The energy of the Union in Respect come RevenueHamiltonFrom the New York PacketTuesday, November 27, 1787
13.Advantage that the Union in Respect to economy in GovernmentHamiltonFor the Independent Journal--
14.Objections to the Proposed structure from degree of territory AnsweredMadisonFrom the New York PacketFriday, November 30, 1787
15.The Insufficiency the the current Confederation to keep the UnionHamiltonFor the Independent Journal--
16.The same Subject Continued: The Insufficiency that the current Confederation to maintain the UnionHamiltonFrom the New York PacketTuesday, December 4, 1787
17.The exact same Subject Continued: The Insufficiency the the current Confederation to keep the UnionHamiltonFor the independent Journal--
18.The exact same Subject Continued: The Insufficiency that the existing Confederation to maintain the UnionHamilton and MadisonFor the Independent Journal--
19.The very same Subject Continued: The Insufficiency of the current Confederation to keep the UnionHamilton and MadisonFor the Independent Journal--
20.The exact same Subject Continued: The Insufficiency of the existing Confederation to keep the UnionHamilton and also MadisonFrom the New York PacketTuesday, December 11, 1787
21.Other Defects of the current ConfederationHamiltonFor the Independent Journal--
22.The same Subject Continued: other Defects the the current ConfederationHamiltonFrom the New York PacketFriday, December 14, 1787
23.The requirement of a government as Energetic as the One Proposed to the preservation of the UnionHamiltonFrom the New York PacketTuesday, December 17, 1787
24.The Powers important to the usual Defense additional ConsideredHamiltonFor the Independent Journal--
25.The same Subject Continued: The Powers crucial to the common Defense more ConsideredHamiltonFrom the New York PacketFriday, December 21, 1787
26.The Idea of Restraining the Legislative authority in Regard to the typical Defense ConsideredHamiltonFor the Independent Journal--
27.The exact same Subject Continued:The Idea of Restraining the Legislative authority in Regard come the typical Defense ConsideredHamiltonFrom the New York PacketTuesday, December 25, 1787
28.The same Subject Continued:The Idea the Restraining the Legislative government in Regard come the common Defense ConsideredHamiltonFor the Independent Journal--
29.Concerning the MilitiaHamiltonFrom the Daily AdvertiserThursday, January 10, 1788
30.Concerning the general Power that TaxationHamiltonFrom the New York PacketFriday, December 28, 1787
31.The exact same Subject Continued: worrying the power of TaxationHamiltonFrom the New York PacketTuesday, January 1, 1788
32.The very same Subject Continued: concerning the power of TaxationHamiltonFrom the Daily AdvertiserThursday, January 3, 1788
33.The very same Subject Continued: worrying the strength of TaxationHamiltonFrom the Daily AdvertiserThursday, January 3, 1788
34.The same Subject Continued: worrying the power of TaxationHamiltonFrom the New York PacketFriday, January 4, 1788
35.The very same Subject Continued: worrying the strength of TaxationHamiltonFor the Independent Journal--
36.The exact same Subject Continued: worrying the power of TaxationHamiltonFrom the New York PacketTuesday, January 8, 1788
37.Concerning the challenges of the Convention in Devising a Proper type of GovernmentMadisonFrom the Daily AdvertiserFriday, January 11, 1788
38.Incoherence the the Objections to the new Plan ExposedMadisonFrom the New York PacketTuesday, January 15, 1788
39.Conformity of the arrangement to Republican PrinciplesMadisonFor the Independent Journal--
40.The strength of the Convention to form a Mixed federal government Examined and SustainedMadisonFrom the New York PacketFriday, January 18, 1788
41.General watch of the powers Conferred through the ConstitutionMadisonFor the Independent Journal--
42.The powers Conferred through the Constitution more ConsideredMadisonFrom the New York PacketTuesday, January 22, 1788
43.The same Subject Continued: The strength Conferred by the Constitution more ConsideredMadisonFor the elevation Journal--
44.Restrictions on the government of the several StatesMadisonFrom the New York PacketFriday, January 25, 1788
45.The Alleged risk From the strength of the Union to the State governments ConsideredMadisonFor the Independent Journal--
46.The influence of the State and Federal federal governments ComparedMadisonFrom the New York PacketTuesday, January 29, 1788
47.The specific Structure that the new Government and Distribution the Power among Its different PartsMadisonFrom the New York PacketFriday, February 1, 1788
48.These Departments have to Not it is in So far Separated regarding Have No Constitutional regulate Over every OtherMadisonFrom the New York PacketFriday, February 1, 1788
49.Method that Guarding versus the Encroachments of any type of One department of government by appealing to the world Through a ConventionHamilton or MadisonFrom the New York PacketTuesday, February 5, 1788
50.Periodic Appeals come the world ConsideredHamilton or MadisonFrom the New York PacketTuesday, February 5, 1788
51.The framework of the federal government Must Furnish the suitable Checks and Balances in between the different DepartmentsHamilton or MadisonFrom the New York PacketFriday, February 8, 1788
52.The residence of RepresentativesHamilton or MadisonFrom the New York PacketFriday, February 8, 1788
53.The same Subject Continued: The residence of RepresentativesHamilton or MadisonFrom the New York PacketTuesday, February 12, 1788
54.The Apportionment the Members amongst StatesHamilton or MadisonFrom the New York PacketTuesday, February 12, 1788
55.The Total number of the home of RepresentativesHamilton or MadisonFrom the New York PacketFriday, February 15, 1788
56.The exact same Subject Continued: The Total variety of the residence of RepresentativesHamilton or MadisonFrom the New York PacketTuesday, February 19, 1788
57.The Alleged tendency of the arrangement to Elevate the couple of at the expense of the Many taken into consideration in link with RepresentationHamilton or MadisonFrom the New York PacketTuesday, February 19, 1788
58.Objection the the number of Members will Not it is in Augmented as the progress of populace Demands ConsideredMadison----
59.Concerning the strength of congress to control the choice of MembersHamiltonFrom the New York PacketFriday, February 22, 1788
60.The same Subject Continued: worrying the power of congress to regulate the choice of MembersHamiltonFrom the New York PacketTuesday, February 26, 1788
61.The same Subject Continued: concerning the strength of conference to manage the election of MembersHamiltonFrom the New York PacketTuesday, February 26, 1788
62.The SenateHamilton or MadisonFor the Independent Journal--
63.The Senate ContinuedHamilton or MadisonFor the Independent Journal--
64.The powers of the SenateJayFrom the New York PacketFriday, march 7, 1788
65.The powers of the Senate ContinuedHamiltonFrom the New York PacketFriday, march 7, 1788
66.Objections to the strength of the Senate To collection as a Court because that ImpeachmentsFurther ConsideredHamiltonFrom the New York PacketTuesday, in march 11, 1788
67.The executive, management DepartmentHamiltonFrom the New York PacketTuesday, march 11, 1788
68.The mode of Electing the PresidentHamiltonFrom the New York PacketFriday, march 14, 1788
69.The genuine Character of the ExecutiveHamiltonFrom the New York PacketFriday, march 14, 1788
70.The executive Department further ConsideredHamiltonFrom the New York PacketFriday, march 14, 1788
71.The term in Office that the ExecutiveHamiltonFrom the New York PacketTuesday, march 18, 1788
72.The very same Subject Continued, and also Re-Eligibility of the executive ConsideredHamiltonFrom the New York PacketFriday, in march 21, 1788
73.The provision for assistance of the Executive, and also the Veto PowerHamiltonFrom the New York PacketFriday, march 21, 1788
74.The Command of the Military and also Naval Forces, and the Pardoning strength of the ExecutiveHamiltonFrom the New York PacketTuesday, march 25, 1788
75.The contract Making power of the ExecutiveHamiltonFor the Independent Journal--
76.The Appointing power of the ExecutiveHamiltonFrom the New York PacketTuesday, April 1, 1788
77.The Appointing strength Continued and also Other powers of the executive ConsideredHamiltonFrom the New York PacketFriday, April 4, 1788
78.The Judiciary DepartmentHamiltonFrom McLEAN's Edition, brand-new York--
79.The Judiciary ContinuedHamiltonFromMcLEAN'sEdition, brand-new York--
80.The powers of the JudiciaryHamiltonFromMcLEAN'sEdition, brand-new York--
81.The Judiciary Continued, and also the distribution of righteousness AuthorityHamiltonFrom McLEAN's Edition--
82.The Judiciary ContinuedHamiltonFrom McLEAN's Edition--
83.The Judiciary ongoing in relationship to psychological by JuryHamiltonFrom McLEAN's Edition--
84.

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Certain General and also Miscellaneous Objections come the structure Considered and also AnsweredHamiltonFrom McLEAN's Edition--
85.Concluding RemarksHamiltonFrom McLEAN's Edition--