Learning Objectives

Define, solid, liquid, and also gas.Explain differences among these three phases of matter.

You are watching: What has no definite shape or volume

Why is the state that water different in every picture?

Why is the state the water various in every picture?

Water have the right to take numerous forms. At low temperatures (below 0°C), the is a solid. Once at “normal” temperature (between 0°C and 100°C), it is a liquid. While at temperatures over 100°C, water is a gas (steam).

The state the water is in relies upon the temperature. Each state (solid, liquid, and also gas) has actually its own unique set of physical properties.

Matter and also Its States

Matter commonly exists in one of three states: solid , liquid , or gas . The state a given substance exhibits is additionally a physical property. Part substances exist together gases at room temperature (oxygen and carbon dioxide), when others, favor water and also mercury metal, exist as liquids. Most steels exist as solids in ~ room temperature. All substances have the right to exist in any of these three states. In enhancement to currently in one of the three states, issue can likewise undergo a change that state. A readjust of state wake up when matter is converted from one state to another state for instance when a fluid is convert to a gas or a heavy is converted to a liquid.

Note: Technically speaking a fourth state of matter dubbed plasma exists, yet it does not naturally happen on earth, for this reason we will certainly omit the from our research here.


Liquids have actually the complying with characteristics:

no definite shape (takes the shape of the container)has identify volumeparticles are totally free to relocate over every other, however are still attractive to every other

A familiar liquid is mercury metal. Mercury is one anomaly. It is the only metal we know of that is liquid at room temperature. Mercury also has an ability to stick to itself (surface tension) – a property all liquids exhibit. Mercury has a reasonably high surface ar tension, which provides it really unique. Here you check out mercury in its typical liquid form.

Figure 2.6


If us were to warmth liquid mercury to its boiling point of 357°C, and also under the right press conditions, us would an alert all corpuscle in the liquid state go into the gas state.


Gases have the complying with characteristics:

no definite form (takes the shape of that is container)no identify volumeparticles move in random motion with little or no attraction to each otherhighly compressibleSolid

Solids are identified by the adhering to characteristics:

definite shape (rigid)definite volumeparticles vibrate around fixed axes

If we were come cool liquid mercury come its freezing allude of -39°C, and under the right push conditions, we would notification all that the fluid particles would go into the hard state.

The video clip below mirrors this process.

As you have the right to see in the video, mercury can be solidified when its temperature is lugged to its freeze point. However, as soon as returned come room temperature conditions, mercury does not exist in hard state because that long, and also returns earlier to its much more common fluid form.

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Three says of issue exist – solid, liquid, and gas.Solids have actually a definite shape and volume.Liquids have actually a definite volume, but take the form of the container.Gases have no definite form or volume.



Use the web site come answer the adhering to questions:


Which material is a gas in ~ room temperature (25°C)?Which product is a solid at room temperature?Which material is a fluid at room temperature?What wake up to the activity of the particles together you increase the temperature?What wake up to the motion of the particles together you to decrease the temperature?



How plenty of states of issue are there?What is a solid?What is a liquid?What is a gas?