Swedish Svante Arrhenius, in 1884 suggest the ide of acid and base based upon the theory of ionization. Follow to Arrhenius, the acids are the hydrogen-containing link which give H+ ions or proton on dissociation in water and also bases space the hydroxide compounds which offer OH− ion on dissociation in water. This principle is just applicable to those compound which dissolved in aqueous systems (or you have the right to say wherein water is the solvent). The covers many usual acids, bases and their chemical reactions, however there are additionally other compound that have the characteristics of acids and bases but they execute not fit right into Arrhenius concept.

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acids and also basesArrhenius acid-base theorythe water-ion systemamphoteric nature that waterhydrogen or hydronium ion

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Shikha MunjalDepartment that Chemistry, college of straightforward Sciences, Jaipur nationwide University, IndiaAakash Singh*Department of Chemistry, college of straightforward Sciences, Jaipur nationwide University, IndiaDepartment that Chemistry, Suditi global Academy, India

*Address all correspondence to: aakashsingh.ucst

DOI: 10.5772/aramuseum.org.88173

From the Edited Volume


CorrosionEdited by Ambrish Singh

Edited by Ambrish Singh

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1. Introduction

The principle of acids and bases have actually been defined many time in various ways. Numerous scientists put various meanings to characterize the acids and also bases in which several of the ideas are rather narrow and also some are comprehensive. Acids and also bases space existing almost everywhere in our day-to-day life. Every liquid except water, that we used having acid and an easy properties, for example, vinegar (contains acetic acid), soft drinks (contains carbonic acid), buttermilk (contains lactic acid), soap (contains base). The earliest interpretations were make on the basis of their taste and also their result on other substances.

1.1 Acids

Acid are those building materials which have sour in taste, spicy odor, corrosive, having pH2. For example, the reaction in between sodium hydroxide (base) and also hydrochloric acid, creates sodium chloride (salt) and water.


1.2 factors affecting acidic strength

The toughness of acids and bases depends on adhering to factors:Polarity of the molecule and also strength the H▬A bond

Electro negativity


1.2.1 Polarity of the molecule and strength of H▬A bond

As the polarity that the molecule increases, the electron density will get away from hydrogen atom and it i do not care H+ (proton). The higher is the hopeful charge on the hydrogen atom, H▬A bond will come to be weaker, lesser is the power required to break it. Then, the proton will quickly dissociate in the solution. Hence, it will be the strong acid <1>.

* vital points

The priority need to be given to the polarity of H▬A bond, when we to compare the acidic toughness of aspects in the same row. Yet when us compare the acidic strength of facets of same team of routine table, then priority is given to strength of H▬A bond.

1.2.2 Electro negativity

The hydrogen is attach to the more electronegative atom is more acidic. For instance - the hydrogen is attached come the oxygen (E.N=3.5) is an ext acidic 보다 the hydrogen attached come nitrogen (E.N=3.0, i beg your pardon is much less electronegative 보다 oxygen).

1.2.3 Size

The size of “A” atom affect the acidity of acidic strength. As the dimension of the atom increases, the bond i do not care weaker and also acidic strength increases <2>.

1.2.4 Hybridization

Hybridization plays vital role in identify the acidic strength. As the hybridization move from sp3 come sp, the “s” character increases, so acidic toughness increases.

1.3 Bases

Bases space those building material which have actually bitter taste, odorless, revolve red litmus blue, having pH an ext than 7 and becomes much less alkaline once react v acid. These room violent and less reactive than acids. For example, NaOH (Sodium hydroxide), LiOH (Lithium hydroxide), KOH (potassium hydroxide), etc.

These room the basic properties of acids or bases, however not true because that every solitary acid or base. There are some crucial concepts:Arrhenius acid-base theory

Lewis acid-base concept

Bronsted-Lowry concept

Lux-flood concept

Solvent-system concept


2. The Arrhenius acid-base concept (the water-ion system)

The Arrhenius acid-base concept was suggest by swedish Svante Arrhenius. It to be the an initial modern approach to acid-base concept. This concept is quite basic and useful. According to Arrhenius theory, acids room the link that increases the concentration the H+ or proton in aqueous solution. The exit H+ ion or proton is not free-floating proton, it exists in linked state with the water molecule and forms hydronium ion (H3O+). The common examples the Arrhenius acid consists of HCl (hydrochloric acid), H2SO4 (sulphuric acid), HNO3 (nitric acid), etc. As presented in Table 1.


Arrhenius mountain formulaName
HClO3Chloric acid
HNO3Nitric acid
HClO4Perchloric acid
H3PO4Phosphoric acid
H2SO4Sulphuric acid
H2SO3Sulfurous acid
HClHydrochloric acid
CH3COOHAcetic acid
HBrHydrobromic acid

Table 1.

Some Arrhenius acids.

When the is dissolved in water, then:


The acids choose HNO3, HCl, etc. Offers one proton top top dissociation, referred to as monoprotic acids. The acids prefer H2SO4, H3PO4, etc. I beg your pardon having more than one hydrogen atoms and gives an ext than 1 H+ ions on dissociation, called polyprotic acids. That is not crucial that polyprotic acids room stronger 보다 monoprotic acids.


Similarly, Arrhenius bases are compounds that rise the concentration of OH− or hydroxide ion in aqueous equipment or having at the very least one OH− ion in formula. The typical examples of Arrhenius base consists of NaOH (sodium hydroxide), KOH (potassium hydroxide), Ca(OH)2 (calcium hydroxide), Mg(OH)2 (magnesium hydroxide), NH4OH (ammonium hydroxide), etc. As presented in Table 2.

Arrhenius baseName
NaOHSodium hydroxide
NH4OHAmmonium hydroxide
KOHPotassium hydroxide
Mg(OH)2Magnesium hydroxide
Ca(OH)2Calcium hydroxide
Al(OH)3Aluminum hydroxide

Table 2.

Some Arrhenius bases.

When salt hydroxide liquified in water, it totally dissociates right into ions Na+ and also OH−, this dissociation rises the concentration of hydroxide ions in the solution.

2.1 Neutralization reaction

When Arrhenius acid and also Arrhenius basic reacts, salt and also water is formed as product, the reaction is well-known as neutralization reaction. For example:

The acids which are totally ionized in aqueous solution, is termed as solid acids such as HCl, HNO3, H2SO4, etc.

Hydrochloric acid is a solid acid. As soon as it dissociates right into water, hydronium ion and also chloride ions are formed as product. Chloride ions are weak base, however its basicity does not make the solution an easy because mountain is overpowering the basicity the chloride ions. The H+ ions integrate with water molecule and form hydronium ion. In case of solid acid, the concentration the hydronium ion developed is equal to the concentration of the acid whereas in situation of weak acids, the concentration the hydronium ions in equipment is constantly less than the concentration the hydrogen ions.

Whereas the mountain which space weakly ionized in aqueous solution, is termed together weak acids such as acetic mountain (CH3COOH).

In instance of weak acids, the concentration that hydronium ion is always less than the concentration the acid.

Similarly, bases i m sorry are fully ionized in aqueous solution, space termed as strong bases such as NaOH, KOH, etc. Whereas the bases which room weakly ionized in aqueous solution, is well-known as weak bases such as ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH), calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), etc.

Note: it is not necessary that strong acids/bases space concentrated and also weak acids/bases room dilute. Because, the dissociation of a problem does not depend on that is concentration.


3. Energy of Arrhenius concept

This concept explains numerous phenomena like strength the acids and bases, salt hydrolysis and neutralization.


4. Hydrogen ion (H+) or hydronium ion (H3O+)

When electron is removing indigenous hydrogen atom, hydrogen ion H+ is developed which is very reactive. Yet this H+ ion does no exist in aqueous solution. Because in aqueous medium, it reacts v water molecule and forms hydronium ion (H3O+). Water is a polar molecule; it has actually the ability to entice the hydrogen ion (H+). The water consists of hydrogen and oxygen in i m sorry oxygen (EN=3.5) is an ext electronegative that pulls the electron density towards it and causing the partial an adverse charge on the molecule. Because of partial an adverse charge, the has ability to tempt the positively charged hydrogen ion (H+) and type hydronium ion (H3O+). Hydronium ion are much more stable than hydrogen ions.

The hydronium ion is very important aspect in chemical reaction the occurs in aqueous remedies <3>. It is formed by the protonation that water.


5. Ide of pH

The pH that solution deserve to be established by the concentration of hydronium ion.

pH=−log (H3O+)

From this equation, we can discover the pH the pure water. The pH that pure water involves be 7 that is taken into consideration to be neutral. The systems is one of two people acidic or straightforward depending ~ above the adjust in the concentration the hydronium ion.

According to number 1:If the concentration of the hydronium ion in the equipment increases means more 보다 10−7mol/l, pH increases that renders the solution an ext acidic.

If the concentration of the hydronium ion in the systems decreases method −7mol/l, pH decreases that makes the solution an ext basic.

Figure 1.

pH scale.


6. Amphoteric nature that water

The word amphoteric is acquired from Greek indigenous “amphi” that method both (acid and also base). Amphoteric substances are those that has potential come act either together an acid or base. For example: H2O (water) <3>.

On dissociation, the ionizes into H+ and OH− (hydroxide) ion. The existence of H+ shows an acid and the existence of OH− ion shows a base. Since, water is a neutral molecule. So, that dissociates equally right into H+ and also OH− ion.

According to Arrhenius acid-base theory:

The amphoteric nature that water is very important due to the fact that most of the acid-base chemical reactions takes location in the presence of water. Water is vital amphoteric compound that deserve to act together both an Arrhenius acid or Arrhenius base.

Auto-ionization of water <4>;

The H+ ion (a bare proton) does no exist in the solution, it forms hydronium ions by hydrogen bonding through nearest water molecule. Many books refers the “concentration the hydrogen ions” i m sorry is not correct. Because there space no H+ ions, just hydronium ion in the solution. Technically, the number of hydronium ions created is same to the variety of hydrogen ion. So, both deserve to be used.


7. Advantages of Arrhenius theory

This theory is used to explains:Strength that acid and also bases

The toughness of Arrhenius acid and also Arrhenius base deserve to be determined by the level to which that dissociate to give H+ ion or hydroxide ion <5>.The properties of acids and bases in aqueous medium.

Neutralization of acid by reaction through base


8. Limitation the Arrhenius acid-base theory

This concept is an extremely limited, out of 3 theories. Follow to this theory, the solution tool should be aqueous and acid should produce hydrogen ion (H+) or basic should develop hydroxide ion (OH−) on dissociation through water. Hence, the substance is pertained to as Arrhenius acid or Arrhenius base as soon as it is dissolved in water. Because that example, HNO3 is regarded as Arrhenius acid when it is dissolved in aqueous solution. However when that is liquified in any type of other solvent prefer benzene, no dissociation occurs. This is versus the Arrhenius theory.

Arrhenius concept is not applicable on the non-aqueous or gaseous reactions since it defined the acid-base habits in regards to aqueous solutions.

In Arrhenius theory, salt are produce in the product which room neither acidic no one basic. So, this concept cannot describe the neutralization reaction there is no the visibility of ions. For example, as soon as acetic mountain (weak acid) and sodium hydroxide (strong base) reacts, then the resulting solution basic. But this concept is not described by Arrhenius.

Arrhenius theory is only applicable to those compounds which having actually formula HA or BOH for acids and also bases. There are some acids prefer AlCl3, CuSO4, CO2, SO2 which cannot be represented by HA formula, this theory is can not to explain their acidic behavior. Similarly, there are some bases favor Na2CO3, NH3, etc. Which carry out not represented by BOH formula, this concept is unable to define their an easy behavior.


9. Bronsted-Lowry theory

We have actually been formerly learned one Arrhenius acid-base theory which listed a good start in the direction of the acid-base chemistry however it has specific limitations and problems. After this theory, a Danish chemist, called Johannes Nicolaus Bronsted and British scientist, thomas Martin Lowry propose a different meaning of acid-base that based upon the abilities of link to either donate or accept the protons. This concept is well-known as Bronsted-Lowry theory, also called Proton concept of acid and base. This theory offers a much more general and useful acid-base an interpretation and uses to wide selection of chemical reactions. In this theory, we usually take into consideration a hydrogen atom together a proton that has actually lost the electrons and becomes a positively fee hydrogen ion (represented by symbol, H+).

According come Bronsted-Lowry concept, an mountain is taken into consideration to it is in Bronsted-Lowry acid which is qualified to donate a proton to someone else. A base is thought about to it is in Bronsted-Lowry basic which is capable to expropriate a proton from who else. From here, it have the right to note that when an mountain reacts v a base, the proton is transferred from one chemical types to another.Bronsted-Lowry acid-Hydrogen ion (Proton) donor.

Bronsted-Lowry base-Hydrogen ion (Proton) acceptor.

9.1 Conjugate acid-base pairs

Conjugate acid: It creates when a base accepts proton.

Conjugate base: It develops when an acid donates proton.

Note: If an mountain is strong, the conjugate base will be weaker and if the base is strong, the conjugate acid will certainly be weak.

Consider the following chemical reaction:

In this reaction, HCl is an acid because it is donating proton come NH3. Therefore, HCl is act together Bronsted-Lowry mountain whereas NH3 has actually a lone pair of electrons which is provided to expropriate the protons. Therefore, NH3 is act together Bronsted-Lowry base. This reaction is reversible also. In reversible case, the ammonium ion reacts through chloride ion and also again converts into ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen chloride (HCl). In this case, the ammonium ion is donating a proton, referred to as conjugate acid. The chloride ion (Cl−) ion is agree a proton, called conjugate base.

There space two conjugate pairs—conjugate pair 1 and also conjugate pair 2.Conjugate pair 1: HCl and also Cl−

Conjugate pair 2: NH3 and also NH4+

From the equation, the ammonium ion (NH4+) is a conjugate acid of base ammonia and chloride ion (Cl−) is a conjugate base of acid hydrogen chloride.

Note: follow to the concept of Arrhenius, the reaction between HCl and also NH3 is not taken into consideration as acid-base reaction because none that these varieties gives H+ and OH− ions in water.

9.2 instances of Bronsted-Lowry acids and also bases

In this reaction, the nitric mountain donates a proton to the water, thus it act together a Bronsted-Lowry acid. Since, water accepts a proton indigenous nitric acid, so that is act as Bronsted-Lowry base. In this reaction, the arrow is attracted only to the ideal side which way that reaction extremely favours the formation of products.

In this reaction, the water is losing its proton, becomes hydroxide (OH−) and also donates the proton come the ammonia. Therefore, water is act together Bronsted-Lowry acid. Ammonia is agree a proton from the water, creates ammonium ion (NH4+). Therefore, ammonia is act as Bronsted-Lowry base.

From the above two reactions, we can conclude the the water is Amphoteric in nature which means that it can act as both: Bronsted-Lowry acid and also Bronsted-Lowry base.

9.3 benefits of Bronsted-Lowry theory

This concept is able to describe the acid-base behavior in aqueous and also non-aqueous medium.

It defines the basic character the substances like NH3, CaO, Na2CO3, the is, which carry out not contain −OH group yet according to Arrhenius theory, they are not thought about as bases.

It describes the acidic personality of substances favor CO2, SO2, etc. Which do not save on computer hydrogen ion group but according come Arrhenius theory, they space not thought about as acids.

This theory additionally explains the acid-base actions of ionic species.

9.4 disadvantages of Bronsted-Lowry theory

According to Bronsted-Lowry theory, exact same compound is action as mountain in one reaction and act together base in various other reaction. So, periodically it is very challenging to predict the exact acid or base in a reaction.

This theory is not able to define the acidic, straightforward as well together Amphoteric gaseous molecule.

This theory does not define the actions of acids choose BF3, AlCl3, BCl3, etc. Which do not protons to loose or donate.

This theory does not explain reactions in between acidic oxides (CO2, SO2, SO3) and simple oxides (CaO, MgO, BrO) which takes ar in the lack of solvent.


11. Lewis acid-base theory

The Bronsted-Lowry concept which we have actually been previously studied to be a good startup for acid-base chemistry. The Bronsted-Lowry ide was based on the transport of proton indigenous one chemical species to another. However this theory has certain limitations. UC Berkeley scientist, G.N. Lewis, in 1923 proposed a new acid-base concept which is based upon their transport of electrons. This concept is more advanced and also flexible than Bronsted-Lowry due to the fact that it defines the acid-base actions in that molecules which do not contain hydrogen ion or in non-aqueous medium.

11.1 Lewis acid

According come this theory, an acid is a problem which has capability to expropriate the non-bonding pair of electrons, called Lewis acid. They are occasionally referred as electron deficient types or electrophile.

11.1.1 Lewis acid: characteristics

Lewis acid-electron-pair acceptor.

Lewis mountain should have actually a vacant or north orbital.

All cations (Na+, Cu2+, Fe3+) are Lewis acids since they have capability to accept a pair of electrons however all Lewis acids space not cations.

More is the optimistic charge on the metal, an ext is the acidic character. Fe3+ is great Lewis acid than Na+.The ion, molecule or one atom which has actually incomplete octet of electron are additionally Lewis acids.

For example: BF3.

Here, you can see that the central atom boron has six electrons in that is outermost shell. So, it has capacity to accept an ext electrons due to the visibility of an north orbital and also hence, act as Lewis acid.

The molecule in i m sorry the central atom has an ext than eight electrons (SiF4, SiBr4), are also considered together Lewis acids.

The molecule like CO2, SO2, etc. Are additionally considered as Lewis acid. These varieties of molecules kind multiple bond in between the atoms of various electronegativity. In instance of transition metal ions, the steel having an ext electronegativity renders stronger Lewis acids.

Electron negative п: system is also considered as Lewis acids, because that example, +, etc.

11.2 Lewis base

A base is a substance which has capability to donate the electrons, dubbed Lewis base. They are sometimes referred as electron rich species or Nucleophile.

11.2.1 Lewis base: characteristics

Lewis base-electron-pair donor

All steel anions (F−, Cl−, Br−, I−) space Lewis base due to the fact that they have ability to donate the electron but all Lewis bases are not anions.

The ion, molecule or an atom which having a lone pair of electrons, are additionally considered as Lewis base.

The electron-rich п system is additionally considered together Lewis bases, because that example, benzene, ethene, etc.

The strength of the Lewis base have the right to be boosted by increasing the electron density.

Note: when a Lewis mountain reacts through Lewis base, then Lewis acid uses its shortest unoccupied molecular orbit (LUMO) and base offers its highest occupied molecular orbital (HUMO) to produce a bonded molecular orbital. Actually, Lewis acid and also Lewis basic both have actually LUMO and HUMO yet HUMO is always considered together base and LUMO is always considered together acid.

11.4 Neutralization reaction in between Lewis acid and also Lewis base

When a Lewis mountain reacts v a Lewis base, then a Lewis acid-base reaction wake up in i m sorry the molecule i m sorry act together Lewis basic donate that is electron pair into the empty orbital of one acid, creates Lewis acid-base adduct as shown in number 2. The adduct formed includes a covalent name: coordinates bond between Lewis acid and Lewis base. The above explanation means that the Lewis acid is a low electron thickness centre and Lewis base is a high electron density centre <6>.

Figure 2.

Acid-base neutralization.

In this reaction, the two ammonia molecules reacts with silver ion. The ammonia has actually lone pair the electrons, for this reason it has the capability to donate the lone pairs of electrons and acts as Lewis base. The confident charge on silver denotes its electrophilic nature that method it has actually an ability to accept the bag of electrons and also act together Lewis acid (by Lewis definition).

Here, the can likewise be listed that as soon as a Lewis mountain reacts with a Lewis base, there is no readjust in the oxidation variety of any of this atoms.

11.5 restrictions of Lewis acid-base theory

This theory is not able to explain that why all acid-base reactions do not indicate the covalent coordination bond.

This concept is likewise unable to define the behavior of part acids choose hydrogen chloride (HCl) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) due to the fact that they do not form the covalent coordination bond v bases. Hence, they space not thought about as Lewis acids.

This concept cannot define the concept that why the development of coordination link is a slow process and acid-base reactions is a rapid process.

This theory cannot define the principle of relative strength of acids and also bases.

This theory falls short to explain the catalytic activity of some Lewis acids.

12. Relation between Lewis acid-base theory and Arrhenius theory

All Arrhenius acids and Bronsted Lowry acids are Lewis acids but reverse is no true.

13. Conclusion

Acids and bases are an extremely important for contemporary society and also in our everyday lives. Castle exist everywhere in ours body and also in ours surroundings. The concept that has been defined in this chapter has given us every the basic information the acids and bases. In this chapter, we have debated all the three an easy theory of acid-base chemistry-Arrhenius theory, Bronsted-Lowry theory and also Lewis acid-base theory. Acids and bases have an essential role in the area that medicine. Native this concept, that is currently easy to treat the conditions with the enhanced medicines by complex understanding of acids and also bases. Because that example, If the concentration that hydrogen ion boosts in the human blood, acidity rises that outcomes weakness in body. In the condition, the body have to keep alkaline by digesting food that produces alkali in the body, come neutralize the acidity.

Definitely, without mountain or bases information, our resides would look various to just how it looks now. Many commodities we room using today would have actually no usage without this knowledge.


I to be eternally grateful and beholden to mine family. My mommy Mrs. Suman Munjal, father Mr. Bhim Sain Munjal and sister Mrs. Shweta Java because that strengthening me through the opportunities and also experiences which enabled me in getting to these heights. The factor behind this success is their selfless encouragement that aided me explore brand-new dimensions in my life.

I especially acknowledge the donation of mine confidence Dr. Himanshu Mathur and brother Mr. Chirag Munjal for his continuous and continual support, efficient efforts that proof reading my works, sort words the motivation, and providing me with valuable tips. Ns would prefer to show my appreciation for sharing his expertise and experiences because that organizing compelled resources.

Conflict of interest


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I Shikha Munjal undersigned solemnly declare that all the details submitted through me in this chapter is correct, true and valid.