aramuseum.org experts regularly get questions about the an interpretation of a selection of indigenous or descriptions pertained to cooking. We thought you could find a navard of cooking terms to it is in helpful. Because there room soooo numerous terms, we’ll carry out a couple of aramuseum.orgs to make it easy. If we’ve let go a cooking-related word that you’ve always wondered about, please let united state know and also we’ll add that come our glossary!
Au gratin – foodstuffs with a browned or crusted top: regularly made by browning a food through a bread crumb, cheese, and/or sauce topping under a broiler or salamander.
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Barding – tying thin slices of fat, such as bacon or pork fatback, end meats or poultry the have tiny to no natural fat spanning in order come protect and moisten them during roasting.
Béarnaise – a sauce make of butter and egg yolks and flavored with a palliation of vinegar, shallots, tarragon and peppercorns.
Béchamel – a leading or mommy sauce made by thickening milk through a white roux and including seasonings.
Blanching – an extremely briefly6 and also partially cooking a food in a cook water or warm fat; usually provided to aid preparation (for example, to ease peels native vegetables), as component of a mix cooking method, to eliminate undesirable spices or come prepare a food because that freezing.
Bordelaise – a brown sauce flavored with a palliation of red wine, shallots, pepper, and herbs and garnished through marrow.
Braising – a combination cooking method in which foodstuffs are first browned in hot fat, then covered and slowly cooked in a tiny amount of liquid over short heat; braising uses a mix of simmering and also steaming come transfer warm from the fluid (conduction) and also the wait (convection) to the foods
Broiling – a dry-heat cooking method in which foods items are cooked by heat radiating native an overhead source
Butter Flying – slicing boneless meat, fish or shrimp virtually in fifty percent so that they spread open up like a book; used to boost surface area and also speed cooking.
Caramelization – the process of food preparation sugars; the browning of sugars improves the flavor and appearance of foods.
Carryover Cooking – the food preparation that wake up after a food is removed from a warmth source; that is completed by the residual heat remaining in the food.
Clarification – 1) the process of transforming a broth right into a clear consommé through trapping impurities v a clearmeat consisting of the egg white protein albumen, soil meat, and acidic product, mirepox, and also other ingredients. 2) The clearmeat provided to clear up a broth.
Conduction – the deliver of warmth from one article to another through direct contact.
Convection – the transport of heat caused by the organic movement of molecules in a fluid (whether air, water, or fat) from a warmer area come a cooler one. Mechanical convection is the motion of molecules resulted in by stirring.
Creaming – a mixing an approach in i m sorry softened fat and also sugar space vigorously an unified to combine air.
Curdle – the separation that milk or egg mixtures right into solid and liquid components, brought about by over cooking, high heat, or the visibility of acids.
Deep Frying – a dry-heat cooking technique using convection to transfer warm to a food submerged in warm fat; foodstuffs to be deep-fried are usually first coated in butter or breading.
Deglaze – to swirl or row a liquid (usually alcohol or stock) in a sauté pan or various other pan come dissolve cooked food particles continuing to be on the bottom; the resulting mixture often becomes the base because that a sauce.
Demi-glace – a mixture of half brown share and fifty percent brown sauce decreased by half.
Detrempe – a paste made v flour and water throughout the an initial stage of prepare pastry dough, especially rolled-in doughs.
Docking – pricking tiny holes in one unbaked dough or crust come allow vapor to escape and also prevent the dough indigenous rising as soon as baked.
Dredging – coating of food v flour of finely ground crumbs; normally done prior to sautéing or frying or together the very first step that the standardization breading process.
Egg wash – a mixture of to win eggs and a liquid, generally milk or water, provided to coat dough before baking to include sheen
Emulsification – the procedure by which normally unmixable liquids, such as oil and water, are required into a uniform distribution.
Espagnole – likewise known as brown sauce, a top sauce, or mommy sauce, make of brown stock, mirepoix and also tomatoes thickened with brown roux. Regularly used to create demi-glace.
Flambé – food served flaming; developed by igniting brandy, rum, or other liquor.
Frying – a dry warm cooking method in which foodstuffs are cooking in hot fat; includes sautéing and stir-frying, pan-frying, and also deep-frying.
Ganache – a rich blend the chocolate and also heavy cream and also flavorings (if you desire). Likewise used together a pastry or liquid filling or frosting.
Hollandaise – an emulsified sauce, leading sauce or mom sauce, make of butter, egg yolks and, many frequently, lemon juice.
Induction Cooking – a cooking method that uses a unique coil placed listed below the stovetop surface ar in mix with specifically designed cookware come generate heat rapidly with an alternating magnetic field. Induction cookware needs induction compatible cookware:
Jus lié – additionally known together fond lié, a sauce do by thickening brown stock through cornstarch or comparable starch; regularly used prefer a demi-glace, especially to produce little sauces.
Larding – inserting thin slices of fat, such as bacon or pork belly or fatback, into low fat meat in stimulate to include moisture.
Leading sauce or mommy Sauces – the structure for the entire classic repertoire of warm sauces. The 5 leading sauce (béchamel, velouté, espagnole, tomato, and also hollandaise) are differentiated by the liquids and thickeners supplied to do them. They have the right to be seasoned and garnished to develop a wide variety of small or link sauces.
Liaison – a mixture of egg yolks and also heavy cream used to thicken and also enrich sauces.
Marinate – come soak a food in a seasoned liquid in order come tenderize the food and add flavor come it.
Mirepoix – a mixture that coarsely chopped onion, carrot, and celery provided to odor stocks, stews, and other foods; usually a mixture of 50% onion, 25% carrot, and 25% celery, by weight, is used.
Mis en place – refers to the preparation and assembly the all crucial ingredients and equipment.
Nappe – 1) the consistency that a liquid, generally a sauce, that will coat the back of a spoon. 2) come coat a food with a sauce.
Pan-Frying – a dry warmth cooking method in i beg your pardon food is put in a moderate lot of fat.
Papillote, en – a cooking method in i m sorry food is sheathe in document or foil and then heated so the the food steams in its very own moisture.
Parboiling – partially food preparation a food in a boiling or simmering liquid; comparable to blanching yet the cooking time is longer.
Pilaf – a cooking method for seed in i m sorry the grains space lightly sautéed in hot fat and then a warm liquid is added. The mixture is heated there is no stirring until the liquid is absorbed.
Poaching – a moist warm cooking technique that provides convection to transfer warm from a hot (approximately 160° – 180° F) fluid to the food submerged in it.
Purée – 1) to procedure food to achieve a smooth pulp 2) food the is handle by mashing, straining or fine chopping to accomplish a smooth pulp
Ragout 1) traditionally, a well-seasoned, affluent stew include meat, vegetables and also wine; 2) any kind of stewed mixture
Reduce – to cook a liquid mixture, often a sauce, till its amount decreases because of evaporation; generally done to concentration flavors and thicken liquids.
Refreshing – submerging a food in cold water to conveniently cool it and prevent further cooking, likewise known as shocking; usually used for vegetables.
Risotto – 1) a cooking an approach for seed in which the grains are lightly sautéed in butter or olive oil. Then a liquid, such together stock, is slowly added. The mixture is simmered through near continuous stirring until the still-firm seed merge v the cooking liquid. 2) a timeless northern Italian rice dish.
Roasting – a dry warm cooking an approach that heats food by surrounding it v hot, dried air in a closed environment or ~ above a spit end an open up fire. It is similar to baking, however the term roasting is usually used to meats, poultry, game and vegetables.
Roux – a cooking mixture of equal components flour and fat, by weight, supplied as a thickener for sauces and other dishes. Food preparation the flour in fat coats the starch granules with the fat and also prevents them from lumping with each other or forming lumps when included to a liquid or angry versa.
Sauce – generally, a thickened liquid provided to include flavor to other foods.
Sautéing – a dry warm cooking technique that provides conduction to transfer warm from a hot pan come food through the help of a tiny amount of hot fat. Cooking is typically done quickly over high temperatures.
Scald – to heat a liquid, usually milk, to just listed below the boil point.
Sear – to brown food conveniently over high heat; normally done together a preparatory step for mix cooking methods.
Shallow Poaching – a moist warm cooking an approach that combine poaching and also steaming; the food (usually fish) is placed on a vegetables bed and also partially extended with a fluid (caisson) and simmered.
Simmering – 1) a moist warmth cooking technique that provides convection come transfer warmth from a warm (approximately 185° come 205° F) fluid to food submerged in it. 2) keeping the temperature of a liquid just listed below the boiling point.
Slurry – a mixture of raw starch and also cold liquid provided for thickening.
Small Sauces – likewise known together compound sauces, made by including one or more ingredients come a leading, or mother, sauce. They room grouped together right into families based upon their leading sauce. Some small sauces have a range of uses; others are timeless accompaniments for certain foods.
Standard Breading Process – the procedure for coating foods with crumbs or meal by pass the food with flour, then an egg wash and also then the crumbs. It offers food a relatively thick, fresh coating once deep fried or pan fried.
Steaming – a moist warm cooking method in which heat is moved from steam to the food gift cooked by straight contact. The food to be steam is put in a basket or rack above a boiling fluid in a spanned pan.
Stewing – a mix cooking technique similar to braising however generally involving smaller piece of meat that are an initial blanched or browned, then cooked in a tiny amount of liquid which is then offered as a sauce.
Stir-Frying – a dry heat cooking method similar to sautéing in which foodstuffs are cooking over very high warm using little fat while stirring constantly and also briskly. Regularly done in a wok or open up stir fry pan.
Stock – a clear, un-thickened fluid flavored by dissolve substances extracted from meat, poultry or fish and also their bones and from mirepoix, other vegetables and also seasonings.
Submersion Poaching – a poaching an approach in i beg your pardon the food is totally covered through the poaching liquid.
Suprême – 1) a sauce made by adding cream come a velouté do from chicken stock. That is supplied to make several compound sauces of the velouté family (see following week’s cooking Glossary) 2) a boneless, skinless chicken breast through the very first wing segment attached
Sweating – food preparation a food (typically vegetables) in a little amount that fat, generally covered, end low warm without browning till the food softens and releases moisture. Sweating enables the food to release its flavor an ext quickly when cooked with various other foods.
Tempering – 1) heater gently and gradually 2) describes the process of slowly adding a hot liquid to egg or other foods to raise their temperature without resulting in them to curdle 3) describes a process for melting chocolate
Thickening Agent – ingredients provided to thicken sauces, contains starches (flour, cornstarch, and also arrowroot), gelatin and also liaison.
Tomato Sauce – a top sauce, mom sauce, do from tomatoes, vegetables, seasonings, and white stock; it may or may not it is in thickened with roux.
Velouté – a leading sauce, mom sauce, do by thickening a white share (either fish, veal or chicken) through roux.
Wash – a glaze applied to dough prior to baking; a frequently used wash is make with whole eggs and water.
Whipping – a mixing technique in which foods are intensely beaten in bespeak to combine air; a whisk or an electrical mixer v its whip attachments is used.
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White Stock – a light colored share made native chicken, veal, beef, or fish skeleton simmered in water v vegetables and also seasonings.