1) exactly how do the Taylor Glacier bacteria produce their energy? A) photosynthesis B) heterotrophism C) chemoautotrophism D) thermophobism E) chemosynthesis


2) In ecosystems, why is the term cycling offered to describe material transfer, conversely, the term circulation is offered for power exchange? A) products are continuously used, but energy flows through and also out the ecosystems. B) Both material and also energy room recycled and also are then moved to other ecosystems together in a flow. C) products are cycled into ecosystems from various other ecosystems, yet energy constantly operation within the ecosystem. D) Both material and energy circulation in a never-ending stream within an ecosystem. E) nobody of the choices is correct.

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3) i m sorry statement many accurately explains how matter and energy are provided in ecosystems? A) matter is cycled v ecosystems; energy is not. B) power is cycled v ecosystems; matter is not. C) power can it is in converted right into matter; matter cannot be converted right into energy. D) Matter deserve to be converted into energy; power cannot it is in converted into matter. E) issue is supplied in ecosystems; power is not.


4) The law of conservation of matter states that issue cannot it is in created, yet matter is sometimes gained or lost to one ecosystem. What is the reason for this seeming contradiction? A) Chemoautotrophic biology can convert matter to energy. B) Matter have the right to be relocated in/out of an ecosystem from/to one more ecosystem. C) photosynthesis organisms transform solar energy to sugars. D) Detrivores convert matter come energy. E) Heterotrophs transform heat come energy.


5) Photosynthetic biology are distinctive to most ecosystems because they A) synthesize necessary compounds they obtain from disc heterotrophs. B) synthesize not natural compounds native organic compounds. C) usage light energy to synthesize necessary compounds. D) use chemical power to synthesize necessary compounds. E) transform light energy into matter.


6) A cow"s herbivorous diet shows that it is a(n) A) major consumer. B) second consumer. C) decomposer. D) autotroph. E) producer.


7) to recycle nutrients, one ecosystem must have, in ~ a minimum, A) producers. B) producers and decomposers. C) producers, main consumers, and decomposers. D) producers, primary consumers, second consumers, and decomposers. E) producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers, peak carnivores, and also decomposers.


8) i m sorry of the adhering to terms encompasses every one of the others? A) heterotrophs B) herbivores C) carnivores D) main consumers E) an additional consumers


9) countless homeowners mow your lawns during the summer and collect the clippings, which room then hauled to the neighborhood landfill. Which of the adhering to actions would most benefit the suburban ecosystem? A) permit sheep to graze the lawn and also then collection the sheep"s feces come be yielded to the landfill. B) collect the lawn clippings and burn them. C) collection the lawn clippings and add them come a compost pile, don"t collection the clippings and let lock decompose right into the lawn, or use composted clippings come the lawn. D) collection the clippings and also wash them right into the nearest storm drain that feeds right into the local lake. E) dig up the lawn and also cover the yard through asphalt.


10) i m sorry of the following is an instance of an ecosystem? A) all of the brook trout in a 500 hectare² river drainage system. B) The plants, animals, and also decomposers that inhabit one alpine meadow. C) A pond and every one of the plant and also animal varieties that live in it. D) The complex interactions the the various plant and animal varieties on a savanna during a drought. E) interaction between all of the organisms and also their physical setting in a dry rain forest.


11) If the sunlight were to suddenly stop providing energy to Earth, many ecosystems would vanish. Which of the complying with ecosystems would most likely survive the longest after ~ this theoretical disaster? A) tropical rain forest B) tundra C) benthic ocean D) meadow E) desert


12) i beg your pardon of the complying with is true that detrivores? A) castle recycle chemical elements directly ago to primary consumers. B) they synthesize necessary molecules the are supplied by main producers. C) They transform organic products from all trophic level to inorganic compounds usable by primary producers. D) lock secrete enzyme that convert the organic molecule of detritus right into CO₂ and H₂O. E) Some species are autotrophic, when others are heterotrophic.


13) The significant role that detrivores in ecosystems is to A) provide a nutritional resource for heterotrophs. B) recycle chemical nutrients to a type capable of being supplied by autotrophs. C) avoid the buildup of the organic stays of organisms, feces, and so on. D) return power lost to the ecosystem by other organisms.


14) about 1% of the solar radiation that strikes a plant is converted right into the chemistry bond energy of sugars. Why is this amount therefore low? A) around 99% the the solar radiation is converted to warmth energy. B) only 1% that the wavelength of visible irradiate are took in by photosynthetic pigments. C) many solar power strikes water and also land surfaces. D) around 99% the the solar radiation is reflected. E) just the green wavelengths are soaked up by plants because that photosynthesis.


15) What portion of solar radiation striking a tree is converted into chemical energy? A) 1% B) 10% C) 25% D) 50% E) 100%


16) individually of i beg your pardon of the following will convert gross primary productivity into net major productivity? A) the energy contained in the standing chop B) the power used through heterotrophs in respiration C) the energy used through autotrophs in respiration D) the power fixed by photosynthesis E) every solar energy


17) i beg your pardon of these ecosystems accounts because that the largest amount that Earth"s net primary productivity? A) tundra B) savanna C) salt swamp D) open ocean E) tropic rain forest


18) i m sorry of these ecosystems has actually the highest possible net major productivity every square meter? A) savanna B) open s C) boreal woodland D) tropical rain forest E) pleasant forest


19) i beg your pardon data is most beneficial to measure primary productivity in a terrestrial ecosystem? A) temperature readings B) potential evapotranspiration C) soot of solar radiation D) yearly precipitation E) lot of carbon fixed


20) i m sorry of the following is a true statement regarding mineral nutrients in soils and their implication for major productivity? A) Globally, phosphorous accessibility is many limiting to main productivity. B) adding a nonlimiting nutrient will stimulate major productivity. C) Adding an ext of a limiting nutrient will rise primary productivity, indefinitely. D) Phosphorous is sometimes unavailable to producers due to leaching. E) Alkaline soils are much more productive 보다 acidic soils.


21) The complete biomass of photosynthetic autotrophs existing in one ecosystem is well-known as A) gross major productivity. B) stand crop. C) net major productivity. D) an additional productivity. E) trophic efficiency.


22) exactly how is it the the open s produces the highest possible net main productivity the Earth"s ecosystems, however net primary productivity every square meter is reasonably low? A) seas contain greater concentrations that nutrients contrasted to various other ecosystems. B) oceans receive a lesser quantity of solar energy per unit area. C) Oceans have the largest area of all the ecosystems ~ above Earth. D) ocean ecosystems have actually less varieties diversity. E) Oceanic producer are usually much smaller than oceanic consumers.


23) Why is net main production (NPP) a more useful measurement to an ecosystem ecologist 보다 gross major production (GPP)? A) NPP can be expressed in energy/unit that area/unit the time. B) NPP can be expressed in regards to carbon fixed by photosynthesis for an entire ecosystem. C) NPP to represent the save on computer chemical power that is available to consumer in the ecosystem. D) NPP is the very same as the was standing crop. E) NPP mirrors the rate at which the standing chop is used by consumers.


24) just how is net ecosystem manufacturing (NEP) typically estimated in ecosystems? A) the proportion of producer to consumers B) the quantity of heat power released by the ecosystem C) the network flux of CO₂ or O₂ in or out of an ecosystem D) the rate of decomposition by detrivores E) the annual total of just arrive solar radiation every unit that area


25) Aquatic main productivity is most minimal by which of the following? A) light and nutrient availability B) predation by major consumers C) enhanced pressure through depth D) pollution E) temperature


26) Aquatic ecosystems are the very least likely to be limited by which of the adhering to nutrients? A) nitrogen B) carbon C) phosphorus D) steel E) zinc


27) What is the main limiting aspect for aquatic productivity? A) push B) absence of nutrients C) light access D) herbivores E) competition


28) which of the complying with ecosystems would likely have a bigger net major productivity/hectare and why? A) open ocean because of the full biomass of photosynthesis autotrophs B) grassland since of the small standing chop biomass that results from intake by herbivores and also rapid decomposition C) tropical rain forest since of the enormous standing chop biomass and species diversity D) cave due come the absence of photosynthetic autotrophs E) tundra because of the very rapid duration of growth throughout the summer season


29) how is it that satellites have the right to detect distinctions in main productivity top top Earth? A) Photosynthetic biology absorb an ext visible irradiate in the 350—750 wavelengths. B) Satellite instruments can detect reflectance patterns of the photosynthetic organisms of various ecosystems. C) perceptible satellite instruments deserve to measure the amount of NADPH created in the summative light reactions of different ecosystems. D) Satellites detect differences by compare the wavelengths of light captured and reflected by photoautotrophs come the lot of light reaching different ecosystems. E) Satellites detect distinctions by measure up the lot of water vapor emitted by transpiring producers.


30) i beg your pardon of the following lists of biology is ranked in correct order from lowest to highest percent in production efficiency? A) mammals, fish, insects B) insects, fish, mammals C) fish, insects, mammals D) insects, mammals, fish E) mammals, insects, fish


31) A 3-hectare lake in the American Midwest suddenly has succumbed come an algal bloom. What is the likely cause of eutrophication in freshwater ecosystems, such as this one? A) raised solar radiation B) arrival of non-native tertiary customer fish C) nutrient runoff D) accidental development of a prolific society of algae E) stole dust blowing into the lake


32) The amount of chemical energy in consumers" food the is convert to your own new biomass throughout a offered time duration is known as which of the following? A) biomass B) standing chop C) biomagnification D) major production E) second production


33) What is an additional production? A) power converted by an additional consumers from main consumers B) solar power that is convert to chemical energy by photosynthesis C) food that is convert to new biomass by consumer D) energy that is not supplied by consumers for growth and reproductionE) growth that take away place throughout the 2nd year that life in consumers


34) exactly how does inefficient transfer of energy among trophic levels an outcome in the generally high endangerment standing of plenty of top-level predators? A) Top-level predators space destined to have small populations that space sparsely distributed. B) Predators have actually relatively big population sizes. C) Predators are an ext disease-prone than pets at reduced trophic levels. D) Predators have quick life spans and also short reproductive periods. E) Top-level predators are more likely to be stricken with parasites.


35) Trophic efficiency is A) the proportion of net second production to assimilation of primary production. B) the portion of manufacturing transferred from one trophic level to the next. C) a measure of how nutrients are cycled from one trophic level come the next. D) usually higher than manufacturing efficiencies. E) around 90% in most ecosystems.


36) Owls eat rats, mice, shrews, and small birds. I think that, end a duration of time, one owl spend 5,000 J of pet material. The owl loses 2,300 J in feces and also owl pellets and uses 2,500 J because that cellular respiration. What is the primary performance of this owl? A) 0.02% B) 1% C) 4% D) 10% E) 40%


37) Why does a vegetarian leaving a smaller eco-friendly footprint than an omnivore? A) Fewer animals are slaughtered for human being consumption. B) over there is an overfill of plant biomass in every terrestrial ecosystems. C) Vegetarians should ingest less chemical power than omnivores. D) Vegetarians require less protein than perform omnivores. E) eat meat is an inefficient way of gaining photosynthetic productivity.


38) For most terrestrial ecosystems, pyramids of numbers, biomass, and also energy are essentially the samethey have a broad base and a narrow top. The primary reason because that this sample is that A) secondary consumers and top carnivores require less power than producers. B) at every step, power is lost from the mechanism as a an outcome of keeping the biology alive. C) as matter passes v ecosystems, several of it is lost to the environment. D) biomagnification of toxicity materials borders the second consumers and top carnivores. E) top carnivores and an additional consumers have a more general diet than main producers.


39) i beg your pardon of the adhering to is primarily responsible for limiting the variety of trophic level in many ecosystems? A) numerous primary and higher-order consumers are opportunistic feeders. B) Decomposers contend with higher-order consumers for nutrients and also energy. C) Nutrient cycles show off both abiotic and biotic materials of ecosystems. D) Nutrient cycling rates tend to be limited by decomposition. E) energy transfer in between tropic levels is in almost all cases less than 20% efficient.


40) which trophic level is most breakable to extinction? A) producer level B) primary customer level C) an additional consumer level D) tertiary consumer level E) decomposer level


41) second consumers that can eat only primary consumers get what percent of the power fixed by primary producers in a usual field ecosystem? A) 0.1% B) 1% C) 10% D) 20% E) 80%


42) i m sorry statement best describes what ultimately happens come the chemical energy that is no converted to new biomass in the process of energy transfer in between trophic levels in one ecosystem? A) the is undigested and also winds up in the feces and also is not passed top top to greater trophic levels. B) that is supplied by organisms to preserve their life processes through the reactions of cellular respiration. C) Heat produced by to move respiration is offered by heterotrophs come thermoregulate. D) the is got rid of as feces or is dissipated into room as heat in accordance with the 2nd law the thermodynamics. E) that is recycle by decomposers come a form that is as soon as again usable by main producers.


43) consider the food chain grass → grasshopper → computer mouse → snake → hawk. How much the the chemical power fixed through photosynthesis that the grass (100%) is obtainable to the hawk? A) 0.01% B) 0.1% C) 1% D) 10% E) 60%


44) If the circulation of energy in an arctic ecosystem goes v a straightforward food chain, perhaps including humans, starting from phytoplankton come zooplankton to fish to seals come polar bears, climate which the the following might be true? A) Polar bears deserve to provide an ext food for human beings than seals can. B) The total biomass that the fish is lower than that of the seals. C) Seal meat probably includes the highest possible concentrations that fat-soluble toxins. D) Seal populations are bigger than fish populations. E) The fish deserve to potentially provide an ext food for people than the seal meat can.


45) Nitrogen is available to plants only in the type of A) N2 in the atmosphere. B) nitrite ion in the soil. C) uric mountain from animal excretions. D) amino mountain from decomposing plant and animal proteins. E) nitrate ions in the soil.


46) i m sorry of the following locations is the reservoir because that nitrogen in the nitrogen cycle? A) setting B) sedimentary bedrock C) fossilized plant and also animal remains (coal, oil, and natural gas) D) plant and also animal biomass E) soil


47) which of the complying with locations is the reservoir for carbon because that the carbon cycle? A) environment B) sediments and also sedimentary rocks C) fossilized plant and also animal continues to be (coal, oil, and natural gas) D) plant and animal biomass E) all of the above


48) In the nitrogen cycle, the bacteria the replenish the environment with N2 are A) Rhizobium bacteria. B) nitrifying bacteria. C) denitrifying bacteria. D) methanogenic protozoans. E) nitrogen-fixing bacteria.


49) exactly how does phosphorus normally get in ecosystems? A) moving respiration B) photosynthesis C) rock weathering D) vulcanism E) atmospheric phosphorous gas


50) i beg your pardon of the complying with is an instance of a regional biogeochemical cycle? A) O₂ released by oak trees in a woodland B) CO₂ took in by phytoplankton in the open s C) overabundance NO₃- converted to N₂ through denitrifying soil bacteria D) phosphorous being took in from the soil by a corn plant E) necessary carbon stays of a sheet being convert to CO₂ by a fungus


51) i m sorry of the adhering to statements is correct around biogeochemical cycling? A) The phosphorus cycle requires the recycling of atmospheric phosphorus. B) The phosphorus cycle entails the weathering the rocks. C) The carbon bicycle is a localized cycle that primarily involves the burning of fossil fuels. D) The carbon cycle has maintained a continuous atmospheric concentration the CO₂ for the previous million years. E) The nitrogen cycle requires movement the diatomic nitrogen in between the biotic and abiotic components of the ecosystem.


52) i m sorry of the following properly web links the nutrient to its reservoir? A) nitrogenionic nitrogen in the floor B) wateratmospheric water vapor C) carbondissolved CO₂ in aquatic ecosystems D) phosphoroussedimentary rocks E) all of the options are correct.


53) In regards to nutrient cycling, why does hardwood harvesting in a temperate forest reason less environmental devastation than lumber harvesting in tropic rain forests? A) trees are typically less many in pleasant forests, so under nutrients will be eliminated from the temperate forest ecosystem throughout a harvest. B) Temperate forest tree species require fewer nutrients to make it through than your tropical counterpart species, for this reason a harvest clears fewer nutrients from the warm ecosystem. C) The warmer temperature in the tropics influence rain forest types to assimilate nutrients much more slowly, for this reason tropical nutrient absorption is lot slower 보다 in temperate forests. D) there are far fewer decomposers in tropical rain forests, so transforming organic matter right into usable nutrients is a slower procedure than in temperate forest ecosystems. E) typical harvests eliminate up to 75% the the nutrients in the woody trunks of tropical rain forest trees, leaving nutrient-impoverished soils behind.


54) Why do logged tropic rain woodland soils generally have nutrient-poor soils? A) Tropical bedrock contains tiny phosphorous. B) Logging outcomes in floor temperatures that are lethal to nitrogen-fixing bacteria. C) many of the nutrient in the ecosystem are removed in the harvest timber. D) The cation exchange volume of the floor is reversed together a an outcome of logging. E) nutrients evaporate conveniently into the setting in the post-logged forest.


55) What is the very first step in ecosystem restoration? A) to reclaim the physical structure B) to reclaim native varieties that have actually been extirpated as result of disturbance C) to remove competitive invasive species D) to determine the limiting components of the producers E) to eliminate toxic pollutants


56) What is the score of restoration ecology? A) to change a ruined ecosystem through a more suitable ecosystem for that area B) to rate up the repair of a degraded ecosystem C) to totally restore a disturbed ecosystem to its previous undisturbed state D) to prevent further degradation by protecting one area v park condition E) to manage competition between varieties in human-altered ecosystems


57) i beg your pardon of the adhering to statements is true? A) one ecosystem"s trophic framework determines the price at which power cycles within the system. B) in ~ any suggest in time, that is impossible for consumers to outnumber producers in an ecosystem. C) Chemoautotrophic prokaryotes near deep-sea vents are main producers. D) There has actually been a well-documented rise in atmospheric nitrogen over the previous several decades. E) The reservoir that ecosystem phosphorous is the atmosphere.


58) In a typical grassland community, which of the following has the the smallest biomass? A) hawk B) line C) shrew D) grasshopper E) grass


59) In a typical grassland community, which of the following is the primary consumer? A) eagle B) snake C) shrew D) grasshopper E) grass


60) as soon as levels of CO₂ room experimentally enhanced in a common grassland community, C₃ plants generally respond through a better increase in productivity than C₄ plants. This is since A) C₃ plants are an ext efficient in their use of CO₂. B) C₃ plants are able to achieve the exact same amount of CO₂ by maintaining their stomata open for shorter periods of time. C) C₄ plants don"t use CO₂ together their source of carbon. D) C₃ plants are more limited by CO₂ access because they lack mechanisms to avoid transpirational water loss. E) C₃ plants have actually special adaptations for CO₂ uptake, such as larger stomata.


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Food internet for a specific terrestrial ecosystem (arrows represent energy flow and also letters stand for species) 61) research this food web for a specific terrestrial ecosystem. Which types is autotrophic? A) A B) B C) C D) D E) E



Food net for a particular terrestrial ecosystem (arrows represent energy flow and letters represent species) 62) examine this food web for a certain terrestrial ecosystem. Which species is most most likely a decomposer ~ above this food web? A) A B) B C) C D) D E) E



Food net for a particular terrestrial ecosystem (arrows represent power flow and letters represent species) 63) examine this food web for a details terrestrial ecosystem. Varieties C is toxic to predators. Which types is most likely to advantage from gift a mimic the C? A) A B) B C) C D) D E) E



Food net for a certain terrestrial ecosystem (arrows represent power flow and letters represent species) 64) study this food net for a details terrestrial ecosystem. Which pair of types could it is in omnivores? A) A and B B) A and also D C) B and C D) C and also D E) C and E


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Diagram that a food web (arrows represent power flow and also letters represent species) 65) If the figure above represents a terrestrial food web, the linked biomass of C + D would most likely be A) higher than the biomass that A. B) less than the biomass the H. C) greater than the biomass that B. D) less than the biomass that A + B. E) much less than the biomass of E.


Diagram of a food net (arrows represent energy flow and also letters represent species) 66) If the figure over represents a naval food web, the smallest organism can be A) A. B) F. C) C. D) I. E) E.


67) ~ above the diagram of the nitrogen cycle, i beg your pardon number represents nitrite (NO₂)? A) 1 B) 2 C) 3 D) 4


68) on the diagram of the nitrogen cycle, which number represents ammonia (NH₄+)? A) 1 B) 2 C) 3 D) 4


69) top top the diagram of the nitrogen cycle, i m sorry number to represent nitrogen-fixing bacteria? A) 5 B) 6 C) 7


70) ~ above the diagram of the nitrogen cycle, i beg your pardon number represents nitrifying bacteria? A) 5 B) 6 C) 7


71) mean you space studying the nitrogen to ride bicycle in a pond ecosystem over the course of a month. When you room collecting data, a i m crying of 100 Canada geese lands and also spends the night throughout a autumn migration. What could you execute to eliminate error in your examine as a result of this event? A) find out exactly how much nitrogen is consumed in plant material by a Canada goose over about a 12-hour period, main point this number by 100, and add that amount to the complete nitrogen in the ecosystem. B) uncover out how much nitrogen is got rid of by a Canada goose over around a 12-hour period, main point this number by 100, and subtract that amount native the complete nitrogen in the ecosystem. C) discover out how much nitrogen is consumed and also eliminated through a Canada goose over about a 12-hour duration and main point this number by 100; enter this +/- value into the nitrogen spending plan of the ecosystem. D) do nothing. The Canada geese visitation come the lake would have negligible influence on the nitrogen budget of the pond. E) placed a net over the pond so that no an ext migrating flocks have the right to land ~ above the pond and alter the nitrogen balance the the pond.


72) As huge as the is, the s is nutrient-limited. If you wanted to investigate this, one reasonable method would be to A) follow whale movements in stimulate to recognize where most nutrients space located. B) observe Antarctic ocean productivity indigenous year to year to watch if that changes. C) experimentally enrich some locations of the ocean and compare their productivity to the of untreated areas. D) compare nutrient concentrations between the photic zone and the benthic zone in various marine locations. E) comparison nutrient uptake by autotrophs in marine areas that are various temperatures.


73) A porcupine eats 3,000 J of plant material. The this, 2,100 J is indigestible and also is got rid of as feces, 800 J are provided in to move respiration, and 100 J are provided for growth and also reproduction. What is the almost right production efficiency of this animal? A) 0.03% B) 3% C) 10% D) 27% E) 33%


74) which of the adhering to organisms is erroneously paired v its trophic level? A) cyanobacteriumprimary producer B) grasshopperprimary consumer C) zooplanktonprimary producer D) eagletertiary customer E) fungusdetritivore


75) which of this ecosystems has actually the shortest net major production per square meter? A) a salt swamp B) one open ocean C) a coral reef D) a meadow E) a tropic rain forest


76) The discipline that applies ecological ethics to return degraded ecosystems to a more natural state is recognized as A) population viability analysis. B) see ecology. C) conservation ecology. D) reconstruction ecology. E) resource conservation.


77) Nitrifying bacteria participate in the nitrogen cycle largely by A) converting nitrogen gas come ammonia.B) publication ammonium from organic compounds, for this reason returning it to the soil.C) converting ammonia to nitrogen gas, which returns to the atmosphere. D) converting ammonium come nitrate, which plants absorb. E) incorporating nitrogen right into amino acids and organic compounds.


78) i beg your pardon of the complying with has the greatest impact on the rate of chemistry cycling in one ecosystem? A) the ecosystem"s price of main production B) the production effectiveness of the ecosystem"s consumer C) the rate of decomposition in the ecosystem D) the trophic efficiency of the ecosystem E) the place of the nutrient reservoirs in the ecosystem


79) The hubbard Brook watershed deforestation experiment yielded all of the following results except: A) most minerals to be recycled within a forest ecosystem. B) The circulation of minerals out of a natural watershed was offset by minerals flow in. C) Deforestation raised water runoff. D) The nitrate concentration in waters draining the deforested area became dangerously high. E) Calcium levels stayed high in the soil of deforested areas.

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80) i m sorry of the adhering to would be considered an instance of bioremediation? A) adding nitrogen-fixing microbe to a degraded ecosystem to boost nitrogen ease of access B) making use of a bulldozer come regrade a piece mine C) dredging a river bottom to eliminate contaminated sediments D) reconfiguring the channel of a flow E) adding seeds of a chromium-accumulating plant to soil contaminated by chromium


81) If you applied a fungicide to a cornfield, what would certainly you suppose to occur to the rate of decomposition and net ecosystem manufacturing (NEP)? A) Both decomposition rate and NEP would certainly decrease. B) Both decomposition rate and NEP would increase. C) Neither would change. D) Decomposition rate would increase and NEP would certainly decrease. E) Decomposition rate would decrease and NEP would certainly increase.