For this analysis we surveyed 3,030 U.S. Hispanic adult in December 2019 as component of the 2019 nationwide Survey the Latinos. Us asked survey respondents around their awareness of the term Latinx and also their views of the term. The sample includes 2,094 spain adults who were members that Pew research study Center’s American trends Panel (ATP), an online survey panel the is recruited with national, random sampling the residential addresses. It also includes an oversample of 936 respondents sampled indigenous Ipsos’ KnowledgePanel, another online survey panel additionally recruited v national, random sampling of residential addresses. For the purposes of this report, references to foreign-born Hispanics encompass those born in Puerto Rico. People born in Puerto Rico space U.S. Citizen by birth. The survey was carried out in both English and Spanish.
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See the Methodology ar of this report for more details.
The state Hispanic and Latino are provided interchangeably in this report.
Latinx is a term supplied to describe people who space of or relate come Latin American origin or descent. The is a gender-neutral or nonbinary alternate to Latino or Latina.
U.S. Born refers come persons born in the unified States and also those born in other countries to parents at least one that whom was a U.S. Citizen.
Foreign born refers to persons born outside of the United says to parents neither the whom to be a U.S. Citizen. The terms international born and also immigrant are supplied interchangeably in this report. For the objectives of this report, foreign born also includes those born in Puerto Rico. Although people born in Puerto Rico are U.S. Citizens by birth, they are included amongst the foreign born for this report because they are born right into a Spanish-dominant culture and due to the fact that on many points your attitudes, views and also beliefs are lot closer to spain born abroad 보다 to hispanics born in the 50 claims or the district of Columbia, even those who identify themselves as being the Puerto Rican origin.
Second generation advert to human being born in the 50 states or the ar of Columbia v at least one first-generation, or immigrant, parent.
Third and greater generation advert to human being born in the 50 states or the district of Columbia through both parental born in the 50 states or the ar of Columbia.
Language prominence is a composite measure based upon self-described assessments the speaking and reading abilities. Spanish-dominant civilization are an ext proficient in Spanish than in English (i.e., lock speak and also read Spanish “very well” or “pretty well” however rate their English-speaking and also reading capacity lower). Bilingual refers to civilization who are proficient in both English and Spanish. English-dominant world are much more proficient in English 보다 in Spanish.
Pan-ethnic labels describing the U.S. Populace of civilization tracing your roots to Latin America and also Spain have been presented over the decades, rising and also falling in popularity. Today, the two leading labels in use are Hispanic and Latino, with origins in the 1970s and also 1990s respectively.
However, because that the population it is intended to describe, just 23% the U.S. Adults that self-identify together Hispanic or Latino have heard that the term Latinx, and just 3% to speak they usage it to define themselves, according to a nationally representative, bilingual inspection of U.S. Hispanic adults performed in December 2019 by Pew research study Center.
The emergence of Latinx coincides with a worldwide movement to present gender-neutral nouns and pronouns into numerous languages whose grammar has actually traditionally used male or female constructions. In the unified States, the very first uses of Latinx appeared more than a decade ago. It was included to a widely used English dictionary in 2018, mirroring its greater use.
Yet the use of Latinx is not typical practice, and also the term’s introduction has created debate around its appropriateness in a gendered language favor Spanish. Some critics allude to its origins among U.S. English speakers, speak it ignores the Spanish language and also its gendered form.1 Still, there are examples of the term’s usage in Spanish in the U.S. And abroad.2 Meanwhile, others view Latinx as a gender- and also LGBTQ-inclusive term, reflecting a broader movement in ~ the U.S. Around gender identity.
In addition, the U.S. Born are more likely than the foreign born to have actually heard the hatchet (32% vs. 16%), and also Hispanics that are primarily English speaker or bilingual are an ext likely than those who mostly speak Spanish come say the very same (29% because that both vs. 7%).
Hispanics who determine with or lean towards the democratic Party are much more likely to have heard of Latinx than those who determine with or lean towards the Republican Party (29% vs. 16%).
Awareness the the ax Latinx does no necessarily interpret into use. Throughout many demography subgroups, the re-publishing of Hispanics who say they use Latinx to describe their own identification is substantially lower than the share that say they have heard it. Use is among the highest possible for spain women ages 18 come 29 – 14% to speak they usage it, a considerably greater share than the 1% the Hispanic males in the same period group that say they use it.
The development of Hispanic, Latino and also Latinx
Throughout the last half-century in the U.S., different pan-ethnic state have arisen to explain Americans who trace their roots to Latin America and Spain.
The term hispanic was first used by the U.S. Government in the 1970s after mexican American and other Hispanic institutions lobbied the federal federal government to collect data top top the population. Subsequently, the U.S conference passed Public law 94-311 in 1976, mandating the collection of information around U.S. Occupants of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, main American, south American and other Spanish-speaking nation origins. The law dubbed for the U.S. Census bureau to produce a more comprehensive category that incorporated all civilization who identified having root from this countries. The term hispanic was very first used in a complete census in 1980.
The 1990s carried resistance come the term Hispanic, together it taken on a solid connection through Spain, and an alternative term emerged: Latino. By 1997, the U.S. Office of Management and Budget authorize a directive including the ax Latino to federal government publications. The 2 terms are offered interchangeably, v Latino first appearing on the U.S. Census in 2000, together Hispanic.
More recently, Latinx has emerged as an alternate to Hispanic and Latino. Digital searches for the term among the general U.S. Population appeared online in the early 2000s. Yet the first substantial climb in searches (relative come all digital searches) appeared in June 2016 adhering to a shooting in ~ Pulse nightclub, an LGBTQ dance society in Orlando, Florida, that was hosting the Latin Night top top the date of the attack. In succeeding years, the term’s usage on society media through celebrities, politicians and grassroots organizations has grown. In addition, some scholastic centers at neighborhood colleges, public universities and Ivy league universities are replacing Latino regimen names the were established in previous years with brand-new Latinx-focused names.
In an ext than 15 years of polling by Pew research Center, half of american who map their root to Spanish-speaking Latin America and Spain have consistently stated they have no choice for one of two people Hispanic or Latino together a ax to explain the group. And also when one ax is favored over another, the ax Hispanic has been desired to Latino. Importantly, the very same surveys show, country of origin labels (such together Mexican or Cuban or Ecuadorian) are preferred to these pan-ethnic terms among the populace they are meant come describe.
Google searches because that Latinx increasing in U.S., but trail far behind Latina, Latino and also Hispanic
The family member popularity that Latinx in digital searches in the U.S. Has increased because 2016, according to a Pew research Center evaluation of Google fads data.3 when its more quickly Google searches extend back to the beforehand 2000s, the highest possible monthly relative number of searches for Latinx developed in June 2020, surpassing a previous optimal in October 2019.4
Should Latinx be embraced as a pan-ethnic term because that U.S. Hispanics?
While part Hispanics to speak Latinx must be offered as a pan-ethnic term, few say they prefer it over others. A bulk (61%) to speak they prefer Hispanic to explain the spain or Latino populace in the U.S., and 29% say they choose Latino. Meanwhile, just 4% speak they favor Latinx to define the spain or Latino population.
Preference for Latinx together a pan-ethnic term is higher among those that are conscious of the – 10% in this group say they favor Latinx. Yet even amongst those mindful of Latinx, the terms Hispanic (50%) and Latino (31%) are preferred.
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In their own words: What does Latinx average to Hispanics?
When inquiry in an open-ended question what Latinx means in their very own words, 42% the those who have heard the term describe it together a gender-neutral one. As one 21-year-old woman said, “Latinx is a an ext inclusive ax to usage for those who execute not select to recognize with a particular gender. The state Latino and also Latina are really limiting for details people.”
Other responses native the open-ended question offer various other descriptions the Latinx and also reactions to it. For example, 12% of respondents who had heard of Latinx to express disagreement or dislike of the term. Some defined the term as an “anglicism” the the Spanish language, while others say the hatchet is “not representative that the bigger Latino community.”
Among various other responses, 12% to speak Latinx is a term around being spain or Latino, if 9% of those conscious of Latinx speak it is one LGBTQ neighborhood inclusive term. And 6% of respondent who have actually heard that Latinx speak it is a new, different or replacement term because that Latino.