The mrs reproductive device is a complicated but fascinating subject. It has the capability to duty intimately with nearly every other body system for the purpose of reproduction.

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The woman reproductive organs can be subdivided right into the internal and external genitalia (see the images below). The internal genitalia room those organs that are within the true pelvis. These include the vagina, uterus, cervix, uterine pipe (oviducts or fallopian tubes), and also ovaries. The external genitalia lie exterior the true pelvis. These encompass the perineum, mons pubis, clitoris, urethral (urinary) meatus, labia majora and also minora, vestibule, higher vestibular (Bartholin) glands, Skene glands, and periurethral area.

female reproductive organs, anterior view.
mrs reproductive organs, sagittal section.

External Genitalia

The vulva, also known as the pudendum, is a term offered to explain those exterior organs that might be clearly shows in the perineal area (see the photos below). The vulva is composed of the adhering to organs: mons pubis, labia minora and majora, hymen, clitoris, vestibule, urethra, Skene glands, higher vestibular (Bartholin) glands, and also vestibular bulbs. <1, 2, 3> The boundaries include the mons pubis anteriorly, the rectum posteriorly, and also the genitocrural crease (thigh folds) laterally.

external female genitalia.
Deeper check out of exterior structures.

The mons pubis is the rounded part of the vulva where sexual hair advance occurs at the time of puberty. This area may be described as directly anterosuperior to the pubic symphysis.

The labia majora space 2 large, longitudinal crease of adipose and fibrous tissue. They differ in size and distribution from female come female, and the dimension is dependent upon adipose content. They extend from the mons anteriorly to the perineal human body posteriorly. The labia majora have actually hair follicles.

The labia minora, additionally known together nymphae, are 2 small cutaneous wrinkle that room found in between the labia majora and also the introitus or quality vestibule. Anteriorly, the labia minora join to kind the frenulum that the clitoris.

The hymen is a slim membrane found at the enntrance gate to the quality orifice. Often, this membrane is perforated prior to the beginning of menstruation, enabling flow of menses. The hymen varies substantially in shape.

The clitoris is an erectile structure found beneath the anterior authorized of the labia minora. Its broad in an adult woman is about 1 cm, with an average length of 1.5–2.0 cm. The clitoris is comprised of 2 crura, which affix to the periosteum the the ischiopubic rami. It is a an extremely sensitive structure, analogous to the male penis. It is innervated through the dorsal nerve of the clitoris, a terminal branch of the pudendal nerve.

Between the clitoris and the quality introitus (opening) is a triangle area known as the vestibule, i beg your pardon extends to the posterior fourchette. The vestibule is wherein the urethral (urinary) meatus is found, roughly 1 cm anterior to the quality orifice, and it likewise gives increase to the opening of the Skene glands bilaterally. The urethra is written of membranous connective tissue and also links the urinary bladder come the vestibule externally. A mrs urethra varieties in size from 3.5 to 5.0 cm.

The Skene glands secrete lubrication at the opening of the urethra. The higher vestibular (Bartholin) glands are additionally responsible because that secreting lubrication come the vagina, with openings just external the hymen, bilaterally, at the posterior facet of the vagina. Every gland is small, comparable in form to a kidney bean.

Finally, the vestibular bulbs are 2 masses the erectile organization that lie deep come the bulbocavernosus muscle bilaterally.

The vagina extends native the vulva externally to the uterine cervix internally. That is situated within the pelvis, anterior come the rectum and also posterior come the urinary bladder. The vagina lies in ~ a 90º edge in relationship to the uterus. The vagina is hosted in ar by endopelvic fascia and also ligaments (see the image below).

The vagina is inside wall by rugae, i beg your pardon are located in crease throughout. These enable easy distention, especially during child bearing. The framework of the vagina is a network the connective, membranous, and also erectile tissues.

The pelvic diaphragm, the sphincter urethrae and transverse peroneus muscles, and also the perineal membrane assistance the vagina. The sphincter urethrae and also the transverse peroneus room innervated by perineal branches that the pudendal nerve. The pelvic diaphragm generally refers come the levator ani and also the coccygeus and is innervated by branches the sacral nerves S2-S4.

The vascular supply to the vagina is mostly from the vaginal artery, a branch that the anterior department of the inner iliac artery. Several of these arteries might be discovered on either next of the pelvis come richly supply the vagina.

The nerve supply to the vagina is primarily from the autonomic worried system. Sensory fibers to the lower vagina arise native the pudendal nerve, and pain fibers room from sacral nerve roots. Lymphatic drainage the the vagina is typically to the outside iliac nodes (upper 3rd of the vagina), the common and internal iliac nodes (middle third), and also the superficial inguinal nodes (lower third).

The uterus is the inverted pear-shaped mrs reproductive organ that lies in the midline that the body, within the pelvis in between the bladder and the rectum. The is thick-walled and muscular, through a lining that, throughout reproductive years, changes in response to hormone stimulation throughout a woman’s monthly cycle.

The uterus can be divided into 2 parts: the most inferior facet is the cervix, and also the bulk of the body organ is dubbed the body of the uterus (corpus uteri). In between these 2 is the isthmus, a quick area of constriction.

The human body of the uterus is globe-shaped and also is typically situated in one anteverted position, at a 90º angle to the vagina. The upper element of the human body is dome-shaped and also is called the fundus; the is typically the most muscular part of the uterus. The human body of the uterus is responsible because that holding a pregnancy, and solid uterine wall contractions help to expel the fetus throughout labor and also delivery.

The median weight that a nonpregnant, nulliparous uterus is approximately 40-50 g. A multiparous uterus may weigh slightly more than this, v an upper limit of about 110 g. A menopausal uterus is tiny and atrophied and typically weighs lot less.

The cavity that the uterus is flattened and also triangular. The uterine tubes go into the uterine cavity bilaterally in the superolateral portion of the cavity.

The uterus is associated to its neighboring structures through a series of ligaments and also connective tissue. The pelvic peritoneum is attached to the body and also the cervix as the wide ligament, mirroring onto the bladder. The large ligament attaches the uterus come the lateral pelvic next walls. Within the large base of the vast ligament, in between its anterior and also posterior laminae, connective organization strands linked with the uterine and also vaginal vessels assist to assistance the uterus and vagina. Together, this strands are described as the cardinal ligament.

Rectouterine ligaments, lying in ~ peritoneal folds, big posteriorly indigenous the cervix to with the sacrum. The ring ligaments that the uterus are much denser structures and connect the uterus come the anterolateral abdominal wall at the deep inguinal ring. Castle lie in ~ the anterior lamina of the vast ligament. In ~ the ring ligament is the artery the Sampson, a tiny artery that should be ligated throughout hysterectomy.

The vasculature the the uterus is obtained from the uterine arteries and also veins. The uterine vessels arise native the anterior division of the internal iliac, and also branches the the uterine artery anastomose through the ovarian artery along the uterine tube.

The nerve supply and lymphatic drainage that the uterus room complex. Lymphatic drainage is mostly to the lateral aortic, pelvic, and iliac nodes that surround the iliac vessels. The nerve it is provided is attained through the sorry nervous mechanism (by way of the hypogastric and also ovarian plexuses) and also the parasympathetic nervous mechanism (by means of the pelvic splanchnic nerves native the second through fourth sacral nerves).

The cervix is the inferior portion of the uterus, separating the human body of the uterus from the vagina. The cervix is cylindrical in shape, through an endocervical canal situated in the midline, permitting passage that semen right into the uterus. The exterior opening into the vagina is termed the exterior os, and also the inner opening into the endometrial cavity is termed the inner os. The interior os is the part of a woman cervix that dilates to enable delivery of the fetus during labor. The average size of the cervix is 3-5 cm.

The vasculature is provided by to decrease branches of the uterine artery, which run bilaterally in ~ the 3 o"clock and also 9 o’clock place of the cervix. The nerve it is provided to the cervix is via the parasympathetic nervous system by way of the second through fourth sacral segments. Many pain nerve fibers run alongside this parasympathetics. Lymphatic drainage of the cervix is complex. The obturator, usual iliac, internal iliac, outside iliac, and visceral parametrial nodes room the key drainage points.

The uterine pipe (also described as oviducts or fallopian tubes) are uterine appendages situated bilaterally in ~ the superior section of the cavity. Your primary duty is to deliver sperm towards the egg, which is released by the ovary, and also then to allow passage that the fertilized egg back to the uterus because that implantation.

The uterine tubes leave the uterus through an area recognized as the cornua and type a connection between the endometrial and also peritoneal cavities. Each tube is approximately 10 cm in length and 1 cm in diameter and also is situated within a part of the vast ligament referred to as the mesosalpinx. The distal section of the uterine pipe ends in an orientation encircling the ovary.

The uterine tube has 3 parts. The first segment, closest to the uterus, is dubbed the isthmus. The 2nd segment is the ampulla, i m sorry becomes much more dilated in diameter and also is the typical place that fertilization. The final segment, furthest indigenous the uterus, is the infundibulum. The infundibulum gives rise to the fimbriae, fingerlike projections that room responsible for catching the egg the is exit by the ovary.

The arterial it is provided to the uterine pipe is from branches of the uterine and ovarian arteries, little vessels that are situated within the mesosalpinx. The nerve supply to the uterine pipe is via both sympathetic and also parasympathetic fibers. Sensory fibers operation from thoracic segments 11-12 and also lumbar segment 1. Lymphatic drainage of the uterine tubes is with the iliac and also aortic nodes.

The ovaries are paired organs situated on either next of the uterus in ~ the mesovarium portion of the large ligament listed below the uterine tubes. The ovaries space responsible because that housing and also releasing the ova, or eggs, necessary for reproduction. At birth, a female has approximately 1-2 million eggs, however only 300 of this eggs ever mature and are released because that the function of fertilization.

The ovaries are tiny and oval-shaped, exhibit a grayish color, and have an uneven surface. The actual size of an ovary depends on a woman’s age and also hormonal status; the ovaries are roughly 3-5 cm in length during childbearing years and also become much smaller and atrophic when menopause occurs. A cross-section the the ovary reveals plenty of cystic frameworks that vary in size. These structures represent ovarian follicles at different stages of breakthrough and degeneration.

Several ligaments assistance the ovary. The ovarian ligament connects the uterus and ovary. The posterior section of the wide ligament develops the mesovarium, which supports the ovary and houses the vascular supply. The suspensory ligament that the ovary (infundibular pelvic ligament), a peritoneal fold overlying the ovarian vessels, attaches the ovary come the pelvic side wall.

Blood supply to the ovary is via the ovarian artery; both right and left ovarian arteries originate directly from the diminish aorta at the level that the L2 vertebra. The ovarian artery and also vein enter and exit the ovary at the hilum. The left ovarian vein drains right into the left renal vein, and the best ovarian vein empties straight into the inferior vena cava.

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Nerve supply to the ovaries run with the vasculature in ~ the suspensory ligament of the ovary, beginning the ovary in ~ the hilum. Supply is through the ovarian, hypogastric, and aortic plexuses. Lymphatic drainage that the ovary is mostly to the lateral aortic nodes; however, the iliac nodes may also be involved.