Describe the way that movements of molecules in the air room converted into impulses created in hair cell in the cochlea.

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Explain the functions of the tympanic membrane, the listening ossicles (malleus, incus, and also stapes), and scala vestibule in sound transmission.

Explain just how auditory impulses travel from the cochlear hair cell to the auditory cortex.

Explain just how pitch, loudness, and timbre are coded in the listening pathways.

Describe the various forms of deafness and also the tests used to distinguish between them.

Explain how the receptors in the semicircular canals detect rotational acceleration and also how the receptor in the saccule and also utricle detect direct acceleration.

List the significant sensory entry that carry out the information that is synthesized in the mind into the sense of position in space.




Our ears not just let united state detect sounds, but they also aid us keep balance. Receptor for 2 sensory modalities (hearing and also equilibrium) space housed in the ear. The exterior ear, the center ear, and also the cochlea the the inside ear are associated with hearing. The semicircular canals, the utricle, and the saccule of the inside ear are involved with equilibrium. Both hearing and equilibrium depend on a very specialized type the receptor referred to as a hair cell. There are six teams of hair cells in every inner ear: one in each of the 3 semicircular canals, one in the utricle, one in the saccule, and one in the cochlea. Receptor in the semicircular canals finding rotational acceleration, those in the utricle detect linear acceleration in the horizontal direction, and the ones in the saccule detect direct acceleration in the vertical direction.






The external ear funnels sound tide to the external hear meatus (Figure 10–1). In some animals, the ears deserve to be moved like radar antennas to seek out sound. Native the outside auditory meatus, sound waves pass inward come the tympanic membrane (eardrum).

number 10–1

The frameworks of the external, middle, and also inner parts of the person ear. Sound waves take trip from the external ear to the tympanic membrane via the external auditory meatus. The middle ear is an air-filled cavity in the temporal bone; it contains the listening ossicles. The inner ear is composed of the bony and also membranous labyrinths. To make the relationships clear, the cochlea has been rotate slightly and the middle ear muscles have actually been omitted. (Reproduced with permission indigenous Fox SI. Human Physiology. Brand-new York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2008.)

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The center ear is an air-filled cavity in the temporal bone that opens up via the eustachian ...

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