Gallium

facet 31 of routine table is Gallium through atomic number 31, atomic load 69.723. Gallium, symbol Ga, has a Base focused Orthorhombic structure and Silver color. Gallium is a post-transition metal element. Trivial surname of Gallium is triels, icosagens. Understand everything about Gallium Facts, physical Properties, chemistry Properties, digital configuration, Atomic and also Crystal Structure.


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Gallium is a chemical facet with prize Ga and also atomic number 31. Elemental gallium walk not take place in free type in nature, but as the gallium(III) compounds that space in trace quantities in zinc ores and in bauxite. Gallium is a soft, silvery metal, and elemental gallium is a brittle heavy at low temperatures, and also melts at 29.76 °C (85.57 °F) (slightly over room temperature).

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Gallium Facts

Read crucial information and facts around element Gallium

surname Gallium
atom Number 31
atom Symbol Ga
Atomic weight 69.723
step Solid
shade Silver
Classification post-transition metal
team in regular Table 13
Group Name boron household
period in periodic Table 4
Block in routine Table p-block
Electronic Configuration 3d10 4s2 4p1
Melting point 29.76 °C
Boiling suggest 2204 °C
Electronic shell Structure <2, 8, 18, 3>
CAS Number CAS7440-55-3

ar
13
Al
14
Si
30
Zn
31
Ga
32
Ge
48
Cd
49
In
50
Sn
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
1
1
H
2
He
2
3
Li
4
Be
5
B
6
C
7
N
8
O
9
F
10
Ne
3
11
Na
12
Mg
13
Al
14
Si
15
P
16
S
17
Cl
18
Ar
4
19
K
20
Ca
21
Sc
22
Ti
23
V
24
Cr
25
Mn
26
Fe
27
Co
28
Ni
29
Cu
30
Zn
31
Ga
32
Ge
33
As
34
Se
35
Br
36
Kr
5
37
Rb
38
Sr
39
Y
40
Zr
41
Nb
42
Mo
43
Tc
44
Ru
45
Rh
46
Pd
47
Ag
48
Cd
49
In
50
Sn
51
Sb
52
Te
53
I
54
Xe
6
55
Cs
56
Ba
72
Hf
73
Ta
74
W
75
Re
76
Os
77
Ir
78
Pt
79
Au
80
Hg
81
Tl
82
Pb
83
Bi
84
Po
85
At
86
Rn
7
87
Fr
88
Ra
104
Rf
105
Db
106
Sg
107
Bh
108
Hs
109
Mt
110
Ds
111
Rg
112
Cn
113
Nh
114
Fl
115
Mc
116
Lv
117
Ts
118
Og
Lanthanides
57
La
58
Ce
59
Pr
60
Nd
61
Pm
62
Sm
63
Eu
64
Gd
65
Tb
66
Dy
67
Ho
68
Er
69
Tm
70
Yb
71
Lu
Actinide
89
Ac
90
Th
91
Pa
92
U
93
Np
94
Pu
95
Am
96
Cm
97
Bk
98
Cf
99
Es
100
Fm
101
Md
102
No
103
Lr

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How to locate Gallium on routine Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is very same as number of electrons. The atom number boosts from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( atomic number 1) and also ends at bottom appropriate (atomic number 118). Thus you can directly look because that atomic number 31 to find Gallium on routine table.

Another means to read periodic table and locate an element is by using team number (column) and duration number (row). To find Gallium on regular table look because that cross ar of team 13 and duration 4 in the contemporary periodic table.

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Table that Contents


History
Abundance
Physical Properties
Thermal Properties
Crystal Structure
Atomic & orbital Properties
Chemical Properties
Isotopes
Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines
Databases
Compare Gallium with various other elements

Gallium History

The aspect Gallium was found by Lecoq de Boisbaudran in year 1875 in France . Gallium acquired its name from Gallia, the Latin name for France

Gallium Presence: abundance in Nature and also Around Us

The table listed below shows the abundance of Gallium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth"s Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

Ppb by load (1ppb =10^-7 %)
diversity in cosmos 1×10-6%
diversity in sun 4×10-6%
abundance in Meteorites 7.6e-06
Abundance in Earth"s tardy 1.9e-05
abundance in oceans 3×10-9%
variety in humans N/A

Crystal framework of Gallium

The solid state structure of Gallium is Base focused Orthorhombic.

The crystal structure can be described in regards to its unit Cell. The unit cell repeats chin in 3 dimensional room to form the structure.

Unit cabinet Parameters

The unit cabinet is stood for in regards to its lattice parameters, which are the lengths the the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

a b c
451.97 766.33 452.6 pm

and the angles between them Lattice angles (alpha, beta and also gamma).

alpha beta gamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are explained by the collection of atom positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured indigenous a reference lattice point.

The symmetry nature of the crystal are described by the ide of space groups. All possible symmetric kinds of particles in three-dimensional an are are defined by the 230 room groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral duplicates are taken into consideration distinct.

space Group name Cmca
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room Group Number 64
Crystal framework Base centered Orthorhombic

Gallium Atomic and also Orbital Properties

Gallium atoms have 31 electrons and the electronic shell framework is <2, 8, 18, 3> with Atomic hatchet Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2P1/2.


atomic Number 31
Number of electron (with no charge) 31
Number that Protons 31
Mass Number 70
Number the Neutrons 39
Shell structure (Electrons per power level) <2, 8, 18, 3>
Electron configuration 3d10 4s2 4p1
Valence Electrons 4s2 4p1
Oxidation State -5;-4;-2;-1 1;2;3
Atomic ax Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2P1/2

Shell framework of Gallium - electron per energy level


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Ground State digital Configuration of Gallium - neutral Gallium atom

The floor state digital configuration the Neutral Gallium atom is 3d10 4s2 4p1. The section of Gallium configuration the is identical to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated together . Because that atoms with numerous electrons, this notation have the right to become lengthy and for this reason an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as the is the Valence electron 3d10 4s2 4p1, electrons in the outermost covering that identify the chemistry properties that the element.

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Unabbreviated digital configuration that neutral Gallium

Complete soil state digital configuration because that the Gallium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p1

Atomic framework of Gallium

Gallium atomic radius is 136 pm, when it"s covalent radius is 126 pm.

atom Radius

136 afternoon (1.36 Å)

Atomic Volume 11.8094512195 cm3
Covalent Radius 126 afternoon (1.26 Å)
van der Waals Radius 187 pm
ghost Cross ar 2.9 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum the Gallium

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Gallium chemical Properties: Gallium Ionization Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of Gallium is 28.9 kJ/mol

Valence 3
Electronegativity 1.81
ElectronAffinity 28.9 kJ/mol

Ionization power of Gallium

Refer come table below for Ionization energies the Gallium

Ionization power number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 578.8
2 1979.3
3 2963
4 6180

Gallium physical Properties

Refer to below table for Gallium physical Properties

density 5.904 g/cm3
Molar Volume 11.8094512195 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus N/A
Shear Modulus N/A
bulk Modulus N/A
Poisson ratio N/A

Hardness of Gallium - exam to measure of Hardness the Element

Mohs Hardness 1.5 MPa
Vickers Hardness N/A
Brinell Hardness 60 MPa

Gallium electrical Properties

Gallium is Conductor the electricity. Describe table listed below for the electrical properties of Gallium

electric Conductivity 7.1×106 S/m
Resistivity 1.4×10-7 m Ω
Superconducting allude 1.083

Gallium Heat and Conduction Properties

heat Conductivity 29 W/(m K)
Thermal development 0.00012 K-1

Gallium Magnetic Properties

Magnetic kind Diamagnetic
Curie allude N/A
mass Magnetic Susceptibility -3×10-9
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility -2.09×10-10
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility -1.77e-05

Optical nature of Gallium

Refractive table of contents N/A

Acoustic nature of Gallium

speed of Sound 2740 m/s

Gallium thermal Properties - Enthalpies and also thermodynamics

Refer to table below for thermal properties the Gallium

Melting allude 302.91 K (29.76 °C)
Boiling suggest 2477 K (2204 °C)
an important Temperature N/A
Superconducting point 1.083

Enthalpies the Gallium

warm of fusion 5.59 kJ/mol
warmth of Vaporization 256 kJ/mol
heat of combustion N/A

Gallium isotopes - nuclear Properties that Gallium

Isotopes that rhodium. Naturally arising Gallium has actually 2 steady isotope - 69Ga, 71Ga.


Isotope Isotope massive % abundance T half Decay setting
56Ga
57Ga
58Ga
59Ga
60Ga
61Ga
62Ga
63Ga
64Ga
65Ga
66Ga
67Ga
68Ga
69Ga 60.108% steady N/A
70Ga
71Ga 39.892% steady N/A
72Ga
73Ga
74Ga
75Ga
76Ga
77Ga
78Ga
79Ga
80Ga
81Ga
82Ga
83Ga
84Ga
85Ga
86Ga

Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7440-55-3
RTECS Number RTECSLW8600000
dot Hazard course 8
period Numbers 2803
EU Number N/A
NFPA Fire Rating 0
NFPA risks N/A
NFPA health and wellness Rating 1
NFPA Reactivity Rating 0
Autoignition allude N/A
Flashpoint N/A

Database Search

list of distinctive identifiers to find the element in various chemical it is registered databases

Database i would number
CAS Number - chemistry Abstracts business (CAS) CAS7440-55-3
CID Number CID5360835
Gmelin Number N/A
NSC Number N/A
RTECS Number RTECSLW8600000

Compare Gallium with all Group 13 elements

Gallium vs Boron Gallium vs Aluminium Gallium vs Indium Gallium vs Thallium Gallium vs Nihonium

Compare Gallium with all post-transition metal elements

Gallium vs Aluminium Gallium vs Indium Gallium vs believe Gallium vs Thallium Gallium vs command Gallium vs Bismuth Gallium vs Nihonium Gallium vs Flerovium Gallium vs Moscovium Gallium vs Livermorium