Sulfate ion (SO42-) is one of the most usual ions that world in chemistry must deal with. This is a polyatomic anion having a negative charge of -2.

You are watching: So4 2- shape and bond angle

We uncover sulfates in a wide selection of compounds, some of the renowned being MgSO4, CaSO4, Na2SO4, and PbSO4. We can quickly prepare sulfates via oxidizing steel sulfites and also sulfides. We can additionally use sulfuric acid and metals to get our wanted sulfate salts.

Zn + H2SO4 ——> H2 + ZnSO4 ( here we acquire zinc sulfate by treating zinc metal with sulfuric acid.)

Since we can conveniently get hold of this ion, be it normally or synthetically, this helps united state in our daily lives in a lot much more ways 보다 you have the right to think of appropriate now!

From body and hygiene-care assets like toothpaste, shampoos, soaps, and also detergents to water treatment procedures, we can find the applications of sulfate compounds everywhere.

Although it have the right to be used in several facilities, sulfates have their drawbacks together well.

It plays an important factor in mountain rain composition. Not only this, it has been deduced that sulfur has an indirect role in cooling impacts and an international dimming.

We must learn around the chemistry bonding and additional features ofSO42- so the we have actually a fingerprint image and also idea around nature and also atomic reactions.

SO42 Lewis Structure

As per the interior structure the a molecule, we recognize that a molecule is written of atom which subsequently is written of a nucleus and also electrons.

The electrons, which are negatively fee particles, are current in shells neighboring the atom nuclei.

When we comment on chemical bonding v the Lewis structure concept, we think about the electrons of the outermost shell i.e. Valence shell electrons to it is in dots and also the binding formed in between atoms as right lines.

The Lewis structure is therefore additionally known together electron dot structure and also is one of the many predominant and simplest concepts to understand the chemistry bonding of molecular compounds.

Here, we will occupational with sulfate ion i.e SO42-.

Step 1: count the total variety of valence electrons current in the molecule/ion

For sulfate ions, we have actually one molecule of sulfur and also four molecule of oxygen.

Sulfur and also oxygen both belong to the same group in the routine table( the chalcogen family) and also have six valence electrons each.

total valence electron in SO42- = 6*1 + 6*4 +2 = 32

Note: We had actually to include two electrons because of the an unfavorable 2- charge on sulfate ion.

Step 2: uncover out the central atom

To discover out the main atom the the molecule, we have actually to consider electronegativity.

Electronegativity is the measure up of an atom’s propensity to tempt negatively fee electrons to kind anionic molecules.

Here, between sulfur and oxygen, oxygen is much more electronegative. Therefore, S or sulfur is the central atom.

Step 3: attract the skeleton diagram of the molecule

We are currently going to lay out the skeletal diagram that sulfate ion v the aid of atomic symbols and also dot line structures.


Here, we have put the symbols of sulfur and oxygen together per notations and put the valence electrons as dots.

Step 4: inspect the Octet rule

Atoms present in the main groups of the regular table tend to have actually a valency of eight adhering to noble gases like argon, xenon, and also so on.

So, as soon as atoms of different types come to incorporate in a molecule form, they monitor the octet rule.

As we view in the above-mentioned diagram, the five molecules have fulfilled their octet configuration and also the total valence electron number remains 32. By drawing solitary bonds, we gain the framework as:


Step 5: Formal fee Calculation

We may think indigenous the over sketch that us have uncovered our perfect Lewis Structure however there is one action left.

We have to calculate the formal fee to check whether all the constituent atoms room in your least possible formal charge values.

To execute this, we have to use the below formula:

Formal Charge= Valence Electrons- Lone pair electrons- 0.5* external inspection Electrons

For every oxygen atom, formal Charge= 6- 6- 0.5*2 = -1

For the sulfur atom, formal Charge= 6-0-0.5*8=+2

We should minimize the value of formal charge values. So, a single bond is not enough. We must create twin bonds.

If we consider double bonds in 2 of the sulfur oxygen combinations, we acquire the below structure.


Now, if we examine the officially charges, us will find out the the formal fee for sulfur is zero, that of the doubly bonded oxygen atoms is zero, and also that of the singly bonded oxygen atom is -1.

So, we acquired our perfect lewis framework here!

Let us move on come our following topic: molecular Geometry.

SO42 molecular Geometry

Once we have deduced the best possible Lewis framework diagram because that our provided molecule, we have to delve deeper and find out how our molecule can look in a plane!

Molecular geometry provides us the 3-D representation with a item of comprehensive knowledge about how the atoms space bonded and also at what angles.

To discover out the molecular shape of SO42-, we must surf the VSEPR theory, quick for Valence shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory.

Through the VSEPR model, we minimize the repulsion between negatively fee electron clouds surrounding constituent atom nuclei.

Let us take into consideration the formula AXN:

Here, A stands for main atom, here sulfur.

X means the number of bonded atoms to sulfur, here 4. (four oxygen atoms are neighboring the central S), N stands for the bonding and non-bonding bag of electrons.

Here, if we take into consideration the A and also X, we acquire the result formula to it is in AX4.


So, according to the chart, we deserve to see that SO42- has actually a tetrahedral structure. The bond angles are practically approximately 109.50 degrees.

Here’s an exact molecular shape sketch in 3 dimensions for sulfate ion.


SO42 Hybridization

Hybridization is vital concept of chemistry bonding, miscellaneous that will certainly be handy anytime all over when we need to talk about a molecule or learn about its properties.


Hybridization is the theory of atom orbitals of similar energy levels the fuse and also combine to kind hybridized orbitals. We find various hybridization in molecules choose sp, sp2, sp3, and so on depending upon the orbital overlapping.

In the case of sulfate ions, we require to uncover out the hybridization to recognize the overlap that orbitals.

We can find this the end by a very straightforward formula:

H=1/2( V+M+A-C)

Here, H means the kind of hybridization

V stands for the variety of valence electrons worrying the main atom

M stands for monovalent atoms

A and also C means anionic and cationic charges existing inside a molecule.

For sulfate ion, V=6, M=0, A=2, C=0

Therefore H value below is:

H= 0.5(6+0+2-0) = 4

This means sp3 hybridization.

Electronic construction for Sulphur is:

S= 3s23p4

If we broaden this us get:

S= 3s2 3px2 3py1 3pz1 3d0

If we different then us get,

S= 3s1 3px1 3pz1 3py1 3dxy1 3dyz1

Here, the s and also the ns orbitals combine and also fuse to form the sp3 hybridization if the d orbitals stay unhybridized.

SO42 Polarity


Polarity is the idea that faces dipole moments and differences in electronegativities( at least 0.5)inside a molecule or ion.

This way that if a compound has atoms having different electronegativity values i.e asymmetrical digital distribution, the usually method that that is polar. A polar molecule has partial optimistic and an adverse charges within (δ+ and also δ-).


We measure polarity via a term referred to as a dipole moment.

The polarity the Sulfate ion

Do you understand that resonance exists in the situation of SO42- ion?

For sulfate, we have actually six resonance frameworks as we deserve to see in the diagram.

We have currently found the perfect Lewis Structure and also checked the the molecular shape is tetrahedral.In SO42-, there room no poles present due to the fact that the framework is symmetrical.

But this does not signify that over there is no can be fried charge because we know that this is one ion having a twin negative charge.

Hence, this ion tends to reaction with various other polar compounds despite being non-polar itself. This fan to the truth that the fee molecule has actually interaction v the partial charge existing in any type of polar compound, for example, H2O( water).

See more: Strange But True: What Are A Group Of Deer Called ? What Is A Group Of Deer Called & Why


Sulfate ion uncovered in salts naturally and also industrially prepared is vital chemical component the we have to learn. We have and also will come across a many compounds later on that will certainly bear sulfate ions. So that is necessary to have actually some knowledge about it to recognize the possible reactions and physical and chemical nature of the particular compounds. Chemistry bonding help us have actually a solid and also smooth idea around the nitty-gritty of atom components.

In this article, we have covered Lewis Structure, molecule Geometry, Hybridization type, and also nature that Polarity of SO42- in an extensive format. This will certainly make your discovering of sulfate ion every the means easier!