Germanium

facet 32 of routine table is Germanium v atomic number 32, atomic load 72.64. Germanium, prize Ge, has actually a Face centered Cubic structure and Gray color. Germanium is a metalloid element. Trivial surname of Germanium is tetrels, crystallogens. Understand everything around Germanium Facts, physical Properties, chemistry Properties, digital configuration, Atomic and also Crystal Structure.


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Germanium is a chemical aspect with price Ge and atomic number 32. The is a lustrous, hard, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group, chemically similar to its group neighbors tin and silicon. Purified germanium is a semiconductor, v an illustration most comparable to elemental silicon.

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Germanium Facts

Read crucial information and also facts around element Germanium

name Germanium
atomic Number 32
atom Symbol Ge
Atomic load 72.64
step Solid
color Gray
Classification metalloid
group in periodic Table 14
Group Name carbon family members
duration in regular Table 4
Block in regular Table p-block
Electronic Configuration 3d10 4s2 4p2
Melting allude 938.3 °C
Boiling allude 2820 °C
Electronic covering Structure <2, 8, 18, 4>
CAS Number CAS7440-56-4

ar
13
Al
14
Si
15
P
31
Ga
32
Ge
33
As
49
In
50
Sn
51
Sb
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
1
1
H
2
He
2
3
Li
4
Be
5
B
6
C
7
N
8
O
9
F
10
Ne
3
11
Na
12
Mg
13
Al
14
Si
15
P
16
S
17
Cl
18
Ar
4
19
K
20
Ca
21
Sc
22
Ti
23
V
24
Cr
25
Mn
26
Fe
27
Co
28
Ni
29
Cu
30
Zn
31
Ga
32
Ge
33
As
34
Se
35
Br
36
Kr
5
37
Rb
38
Sr
39
Y
40
Zr
41
Nb
42
Mo
43
Tc
44
Ru
45
Rh
46
Pd
47
Ag
48
Cd
49
In
50
Sn
51
Sb
52
Te
53
I
54
Xe
6
55
Cs
56
Ba
72
Hf
73
Ta
74
W
75
Re
76
Os
77
Ir
78
Pt
79
Au
80
Hg
81
Tl
82
Pb
83
Bi
84
Po
85
At
86
Rn
7
87
Fr
88
Ra
104
Rf
105
Db
106
Sg
107
Bh
108
Hs
109
Mt
110
Ds
111
Rg
112
Cn
113
Nh
114
Fl
115
Mc
116
Lv
117
Ts
118
Og
Lanthanides
57
La
58
Ce
59
Pr
60
Nd
61
Pm
62
Sm
63
Eu
64
Gd
65
Tb
66
Dy
67
Ho
68
Er
69
Tm
70
Yb
71
Lu
Actinide
89
Ac
90
Th
91
Pa
92
U
93
Np
94
Pu
95
Am
96
Cm
97
Bk
98
Cf
99
Es
100
Fm
101
Md
102
No
103
Lr

check out our interactive routine table


How to find Germanium on periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, variety of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Routine table starts at peak left ( atomic number 1) and ends in ~ bottom ideal (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 32 to discover Germanium on routine table.

Another method to read regular table and also locate an facet is through using group number (column) and period number (row). To situate Germanium on periodic table look because that cross section of group 14 and duration 4 in the contemporary periodic table.

check out Interactive periodic Table to Understand and also Learn Cool patterns

Table the Contents


History
Abundance
Physical Properties
Thermal Properties
Crystal Structure
Atomic & orbital Properties
Chemical Properties
Isotopes
Health and also Safety Parameters and Guidelines
Databases
Compare Germanium with other elements

Germanium History

The element Germanium was found by Clemens Winkler in year 1886 in Germany . Germanium derived its surname from Germania, the Latin name for Germany

Germanium Presence: diversity in Nature and also Around Us

The table listed below shows the variety of Germanium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth\"s Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)
abundance in cosmos 2e-07
abundance in sun 2e-07
variety in Meteorites 2.1e-05
Abundance in Earth\"s tardy 1.4e-06
variety in seas 6×10-9%
variety in people N/A

Crystal framework of Germanium

The heavy state framework of Germanium is Face focused Cubic.

The decision structure deserve to be described in regards to its unit Cell. The unit cells repeats chin in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths the the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and also c)

a b c
565.75 565.75 565.75 pm

and the angles in between them Lattice angles (alpha, beta and also gamma).

alpha beta gamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The location of the atoms within the unit cell are defined by the collection of atom positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured indigenous a reference lattice point.

The symmetry nature of the decision are defined by the ide of an are groups. All feasible symmetric kinds of corpuscle in three-dimensional room are defined by the 230 an are groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

room Group surname Fm_ 3m
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an are Group Number 225
Crystal structure Face centered Cubic

Germanium Atomic and also Orbital Properties

Germanium atoms have 32 electrons and also the digital shell framework is <2, 8, 18, 4> through Atomic term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3P0.


atomic Number 32
Number of electrons (with no charge) 32
Number the Protons 32
Mass Number 73
Number of Neutrons 41
Shell framework (Electrons per power level) <2, 8, 18, 4>
Electron construction 3d10 4s2 4p2
Valence Electrons 4s2 4p2
Oxidation State -4;-3;-2;-1 1;2;3;4
Atomic term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3P0

Shell framework of Germanium - electron per power level


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Ground State digital Configuration that Germanium - neutral Germanium atom

The floor state electronic configuration that Neutral Germanium atom is 3d10 4s2 4p2. The portion of Germanium configuration the is indistinguishable to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated together . Because that atoms with countless electrons, this notation have the right to become lengthy and so an abbreviation notation is used.This is vital as that is the Valence electrons 3d10 4s2 4p2, electron in the outermost covering that recognize the chemical properties of the element.

See more: 5/6 In Simplest Form - Simplify 5/6 To Simplest Form

Unabbreviated digital configuration the neutral Germanium

Complete floor state digital configuration for the Germanium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p2

Atomic framework of Germanium

Germanium atom radius is 125 pm, if it\"s covalent radius is 122 pm.

atomic Radius

125 pm (1.25 Å)

Atomic Volume 13.6464399775 cm3
Covalent Radius 122 pm (1.22 Å)
valve der Waals Radius N/A
neutron Cross ar 2.2 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum of Germanium

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Germanium chemistry Properties: Germanium Ionization Energies and also electron affinity

The electron affinity that Germanium is 119 kJ/mol

Valence 4
Electronegativity 2.01
ElectronAffinity 119 kJ/mol

Ionization energy of Germanium

Refer to table listed below for Ionization energies the Germanium

Ionization power number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 762
2 1537.5
3 3302.1
4 4411
5 9020

Germanium physical Properties

Refer to below table for Germanium physics Properties

thickness 5.323 g/cm3
Molar Volume 13.6464399775 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus N/A
Shear Modulus N/A
mass Modulus N/A
Poisson ratio N/A

Hardness the Germanium - test to measure of Hardness of Element

Mohs Hardness 6 MPa
Vickers Hardness N/A
Brinell Hardness N/A

Germanium electric Properties

Germanium is Semiconductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the electric properties of Germanium

electric Conductivity 2×103 S/m
Resistivity 0.0005 m Ω
Superconducting point N/A

Germanium Heat and Conduction Properties

heat Conductivity 60 W/(m K)
Thermal expansion 6×10-6 K-1

Germanium Magnetic Properties

Magnetic type Diamagnetic
Curie point N/A
massive Magnetic Susceptibility -1.5×10-9
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility -1.09×10-10
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility -7.98×10-6

Optical nature of Germanium

Refractive index N/A

Acoustic nature of Germanium

speed of Sound 5.4×103 m/s

Germanium heat Properties - Enthalpies and also thermodynamics

Refer to table below for heat properties the Germanium

Melting point 1211.4 K (938.3 °C)
Boiling suggest 3093 K (2820 °C)
an important Temperature N/A
Superconducting suggest N/A

Enthalpies of Germanium

warmth of blend 31.8 kJ/mol
heat of Vaporization 334 kJ/mol
warmth of combustion -536 J/(kg K)

Germanium isotopes - nuclear Properties of Germanium

Isotopes the rhodium. Naturally developing Germanium has 4 stable isotope - 70Ge, 72Ge, 73Ge, 74Ge.


Isotope Isotope mass % abundance T fifty percent Decay mode
58Ge
59Ge
60Ge
61Ge
62Ge
63Ge
64Ge
65Ge
66Ge
67Ge
68Ge
69Ge
70Ge 20.84% steady N/A
71Ge
72Ge 27.54% secure N/A
73Ge 7.73% secure N/A
74Ge 36.28% secure N/A
75Ge
76Ge 7.61%
77Ge
78Ge
79Ge
80Ge
81Ge
82Ge
83Ge
84Ge
85Ge
86Ge
87Ge
88Ge
89Ge

Regulatory and Health - Health and also Safety Parameters and also Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7440-56-4
RTECS Number RTECSLY5200000
period Hazard course 4.1
dot Numbers 3089
EU Number N/A
NFPA Fire Rating 0
NFPA risks N/A
NFPA wellness Rating 1
NFPA Reactivity Rating 0
Autoignition allude N/A
Flashpoint N/A

Database Search

perform of unique identifiers to find the aspect in assorted chemical registry databases

Database id number
CAS Number - chemistry Abstracts company (CAS) CAS7440-56-4
CID Number CID6326954
Gmelin Number N/A
NSC Number N/A
RTECS Number RTECSLY5200000

Compare Germanium with all Group 14 elements

Germanium vs Carbon Germanium vs Silicon Germanium vs tin Germanium vs lead Germanium vs Flerovium

Compare Germanium v all metalloid elements

Germanium vs Boron Germanium vs Silicon Germanium vs Arsenic Germanium vs Antimony Germanium vs Tellurium Germanium vs Polonium