Fluorine (F) is the first element in the Halogen team (group 17) in the regular table. Its atom number is 9 and also its atomic weight is 19, and also it"s a gas in ~ room temperature. The is the many electronegative element, given that it is the top element in the Halogen Group, and also therefore is very reactive. That is a nonmetal, and is among the couple of elements that can kind diatomic molecule (F2). It has 5 valence electron in the 2p level. The electron construction is 1s22s22p5. It will certainly usually type the anion F- since it is incredibly electronegative and a solid oxidizing agent. Fluorine is a Lewis mountain in weak acid, which way that the accepts electrons once reacting. Fluorine has plenty of isotopes, but the only stable one uncovered in nature is F-19.

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Quick recommendation Table

prize atomic Number team Electron configuration Atomic load density Melting allude Boiling allude an important Point Oxidation claims Electronegativity steady Isotopes
17 (Halogens)
18.998 g
1.7 g/L
144.13K, 5.172 MPa

Brief History

In the late 1600"s minerals which us now recognize contain fluorine were used in etching glass. The discovery of the facet was motivated by the find for the aramuseum.orgical substance which was able to strike glass (it is HF, a weak acid). The early history of the isolation and work v fluorine and hydrogen fluoride is fill with mishaps since both are exceptionally dangerous. Eventually, electrolysis the a mixture the KF and also HF (carefully ensuring the the result hydrogen and fluorine would not come in contact) in a platinum apparatus gave in the element.

Figure 2: digital configuration that Fluorine

Fluorine is the many electronegative facet because it has actually 5 electrons in it"s 2P shell. The optimal electron configuration of the 2P orbital has 6 electrons, so due to the fact that Fluorine is so close to appropriate electron configuration, the electrons are held an extremely tightly to the nucleus. The high electronegativity that fluorine describes its tiny radius because the optimistic protons have a very strong attraction come the an unfavorable electrons, holding lock closer come the nucleus 보다 the bigger and also less electronegative elements.

Reactions that Fluorine

Because that its reactivity, elemental fluorine is never found in nature and no various other aramuseum.orgical facet can displace fluorine indigenous its compounds. Fluorine binding with practically any element, both metals and also nonmetals, due to the fact that it is a very solid oxidizing agent. It is really unstable and reactive because it is therefore close come its ideal electron configuration. It forms covalent bonds through nonmetals, and since the is the many electronegative element, is always going to it is in the aspect that is reduced. It can also form a diatomic element with chin ((F_2)), or covalent bonds where it oxidizes other halogens ((ClF), (ClF_3), (ClF_5)). It will certainly react explosively with countless elements and also compounds such as Hydrogen and water. Elemental Fluorine is slightly basic, which way that as soon as it reacts v water it forms (OH^-).

<3F_2+2H_2O ightarrow O_2+4HF ag1>

When merged with Hydrogen, Fluorine creates Hydrofluoric mountain ((HF)), i beg your pardon is a weak acid. This acid is really dangerous and also when dissociated can cause severe damage to the body because while it might not it is in painful initially, that passes with tissues quickly and also can cause deep burns that interfere through nerve function.

There are additionally some essential compounds do of Fluorine, varying from nontoxic to very toxic. Fluorine creates covalent bonds through Carbon, i beg your pardon sometimes kind into stable fragrant rings. Once Carbon reacts v Fluorine the reaction is complicated and develops a mixture the (CF_4), (C_2F_6), one (C_5F_12).

Fluorine reacts through Oxygen to form (OF_2) due to the fact that Fluorine is much more electronegative 보다 Oxygen. The reaction goes:

<2F_2 + O_2 ightarrow 2OF_2 ag4>

Fluorine is for this reason electronegative that sometimes it will certainly even kind molecules through noble gases favor Xenon, such as the the molecule Xenon Difluoride, (XeF_2).

Fluorine additionally forms solid ionic compounds through metals. Some common ionic reaction of Fluorine are:

<4F_2 + HCl + H_2O ightarrow 3HF + OF_2 + ClF_3 ag7>

Applications the Fluorine

Compounds the fluorine are present in fluoridated toothpaste and in plenty of municipal water systems where they aid to prevent tooth decay. And, the course, fluorocarbons such as Teflon have made a major impact on life in the 20th century. Over there are countless applications the fluorine:

Rocket fuel Polymer and also plastics production teflon and also tefzel manufacturing When combined with Oxygen, used as a refrigerator cooler Hydrofluoric acid supplied for glass etching Purify windy water offers Uranium production Air conditioning


Fluorine deserve to either be uncovered in nature or created in a lab. To do it in a lab, compounds favor Potassium Fluoride are put through electrolysis through Hydrofluoric acid to produce pure Fluorine and also other compounds. It deserve to be brought out with a variety of compounds, generally ionic ones including Fluorine and a metal. Fluorine can also be discovered in nature in miscellaneous minerals and compounds. The two main compounds it have the right to be uncovered in room Fluorspar ((CaF_2)) and Cryolite ((Na_3AlF_6)).

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Newth, G. S. Inorganic aramuseum.orgistry. Longmans, Green, and Co.:New York, 1903. Latimer, Wendell M., Hildebrand, Joel H. Reference publication of inorganic aramuseum.orgistry. The Macmillan Company: new York, 1938.