Students will certainly learn around food chains, pyramids, and also food webs. Students will likewise learn how every one of nature is connected and dependent on each other.

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A food chain shows exactly how each living thing gets its food. Some animals eat plants and some animals eat various other animals. Because that example, a straightforward food chain links the trees and shrubs, the giraffes (that eat trees and shrubs), and the lions (that eat the giraffes). Each connect in this chain is food because that the following link. Every food chains begin with energy from the sun. This energy is captured by plants. Therefore the living component of a food chain always starts v plant life and ends with an animal.


tree are dubbed producers because they room able to use light power from the sun to produce food (sugar) indigenous carbon dioxide and also water. Pets cannot make their very own food therefore they must eat tree and/or other animals. They are dubbed consumers. There are three groups of consumers. Pets that eat just plants are called herbivores (or primary consumers). Pets that eat other pets are called carnivores. Carnivores that eat herbivores space called second consumers, and carnivores that eat various other carnivores are dubbed tertiary consumers. Animals and people who eat both animals and plants are called omnivores. Climate there room decomposers (bacteria, fungi, and even part worms), which feeding on disk matter. These decomposers speed up the decaying process that release mineral salts earlier into the food chain because that absorption through plants together nutrients.

In a food chain, power is passed from one link to another. When a herbivore eats, just a fraction of the power (that it gets from the tree food) becomes brand-new body mass; the remainder of the energy is lost as rubbish or used up through the herbivore to lug out that is life procedures (e.g., movement, digestion, reproduction). Therefore, once the herbivore is consumed by a carnivore, that passes only a little amount of full energy (that it has actually received) to the carnivore. The the energy transferred indigenous the herbivore to the carnivore, some energy will be “wasted” or “used up” by the carnivore. The carnivore then needs to eat many herbivores to acquire enough power to grow. Due to the fact that of the large amount of energy that is lost at every link, the lot of energy that is moved decreases each time. The further along the food chain girlfriend go, the less food (and for this reason energy) continues to be available.

Food chains can additionally be represented in various forms such as this pyramid.


The above energy pyramid shows numerous trees and also shrubs offering food and also energy to giraffes. Keep in mind that together we walk up, there are fewer giraffes 보다 trees and shrubs and even fewer lions 보다 giraffes. As we go further along a food chain, there are fewer and also fewer consumers. In various other words, a big mass the living things at the basic is forced to assistance a couple of at the top. Many herbivores are necessary to assistance a couple of carnivores. Many food chains have no much more than four or five links. There cannot it is in too many links in a single food chain since the pets at the end of the chain would not get enough food (and hence, energy) to remain alive.

Most pets are part of more than one food chain and eat an ext than one sort of food in stimulate to fulfill their food and energy requirements. These interconnected food chains kind a food web. Food chains deserve to get complicated because pets usually eat a selection of food.

Food Chains

sufficient strips of colored paper so the each student has four, one on which to attract the sun, one on which to attract a producer, one on i m sorry to attract a primary consumer and also one on which to draw a second consumer.

Food Web

blank cards colored pencils Yarn
an organism the eats greatly meat Consumer: an organism, usually an animal, that feeds on plants or other pets Food chain: a succession of organisms i ordered it in such a method that each feeds top top the organism below it in the chain and serves together a source of food because that the organism over Food web: every the linked or attached food chains in ~ an ecological neighborhood Herbivore: an organism the eats largely plants Predator: an pet that stays by killing and eating other animals Producer: an organism, normally a plant, the converts sunlight energy into life material; commonly the first step top top the food chain or food web or very first trophic level that a food pyramid

Cut enough strips of paper so that each student will have actually four. Reduced the yarn right into pieces that will certainly connect types that connect with every other.

Food Chains


on the blackboard, write the following headings: Producers, major Consumers, second Consumers, and also Tertiary Consumers. Ask students to name some varieties under each heading. Then demonstrate how to create a food chain, using some of the varieties listed.

as soon as students understand, have them draw the sun, a producer, a main consumer, a an additional consumer, and also a tertiary customer on every of their 4 strips.

These should then it is in interlocked and also glued with each other to do a chain of species in i beg your pardon one eats the other. They have the right to be hung from the rafters to highlight the diversity the food chains that exist in nature.

Food Webs

Note: This activity can be included for older students.

Start similar to food chains, placing the 3 headings on the board. Have students name varieties under each heading and also tell something about each species’ lifestyle. Then have each student choose a types from the board, write its name on a card, and also draw a picture of it. (Check each one turn off the list together it’s chosen, to make certain it’s only offered once). Then the student have to poke a hole close to the bottom that the card.

start the food internet by it is registered a picture of the sun at one side of the wall. (If you placed it ~ above a wall, it have the right to be saved). Have actually the student who attracted producers lug their cards up. Hang these in a horizontal line alongside the sun and attach each one to the sunlight with a item of yarn to show the connection. Then have students who drew primary consumers carry their cards up. Cave these in a horizontal line over the producers.


One at a time, discuss which producers they would each consume. Attach yarn from every primary consumer to the producers it would certainly consume. (Remember the most pets eat an ext than one sort of food). The student will begin to see how complicated a food web is. Next include the an additional and tertiary consumers in rows above the producers. Again, talk about the connections in between primary, secondary, and tertiary consumers. Next include the scavengers: hyenas (can it is in predators as well as scavengers) and also vultures. Finally, discuss decomposers—bacteria, fungi and also worms that feed ~ above the decaying matter—and their role in the food web. Students have to now have actually a complete understanding of the intricacy of the food web. At right is an example of a food web.

All living things need energy to continue to be alive. This energy comes from the sun. Plants do their food from power from the sun. Pets get their power from the food castle eat. Animals depend on other living things for food. Some pets eat tree while rather eat various other animals. This happen of energy from the sun to plants to pets to other animals is dubbed a food chain.

perform you recognize why there are more herbivores than carnivores? just how do humans fit in the food chain? What could happen if an pet not indigenous to one area is lugged into the neighborhood food chain? What might happen if you eliminate an pet from the food chain? How deserve to sun and rain impact the food chain? Drought? Why is a food web a an ext accurate depiction of nature than a food chain or pyramid?

1. Web of Life


college student will recognize the ide of a food chain and also demonstrate a grassland’s food chain.


images of animals, river, tree, grass, sunlight A ball of yarn/spool of line


read The great Kapok Tree, through Lynne Cherry. Ask student to surname all the different pets that room dependent ~ above the one tree.

give each participant a picture.

very first demonstrate a food chain, a basic interdependence, by linking the student v the sunlight card (the source of all energy) come the student through the grass map to the student v the zebra card to the student with the lion card.

display the results of guy on the straightforward food chain. Guy can:

reduced trees (no trees, nothing for grazers come eat, grazers will die, lions and also other predators will have actually nothing come eat. Castle will begin to eat our livestock.) hunting in overabundance (If we death the lions, there will be too many zebras and they will need more grass. They will eat the grass from our pasturelands.)

Balance is key! describe that the interaction in a grasslands mechanism are more facility than this. For example, the sun offers for more than simply grass, and lions don’t just eat zebras.

have the participants now stand in a circle, out of stimulate (i.e. Not every one of the producers together, then the major consumers, then the second consumers, etc.)

give the round of string come the human with the sun. Climate ask that human being to pass the yarn come the person with a map of one organism the the sunlight supports. If the sun supports an ext than one biology in the circle, pass the string earlier to the sun and also from the sun to the other organism the it supports.

proceed by asking the tree which organisms they have the right to support and also so on.

keep going v the chain until you gain to the height consumers. The string will be a tangled internet in the middle of the circle. Food chains are complicated, and also the balance they produce is essential.

Again talk about the effects of man on the net by having students drop your string if man’s affect kills off their organism. For example, the affect of overhunting will reason the lions to drop your strings. What happens?

Possible questions

execute you recognize why over there are much more herbivores than carnivores? What if one animal from the food chain disappeared? What about one level that the food chain? Producers? Decomposers? Herbivores? just how do people fit in the food chain? What might happen if an pet not indigenous to one area is lugged into the regional food chain? What might happen if you eliminate an animal from the food chain? How have the right to sun and also rain impact the food chain? Drought? Why is a food web a an ext accurate relenten of nature 보다 a food chain or pyramid?

2. Food Chain Tag

This activity requires a big open area. In a class of 25 come 40 students, choose three to 5 to be predators and also seven to ten to be plant-eaters. The remainder will be plants. This represents a balanced system where plants are much more plentiful than plant-eaters, plant-eaters more plentiful than predators, and predators room the least plentiful. The college student can select which plant-eaters and also predators will be in your groups. (Example: Grevy’s zebras are plant-eaters and also lions space predators).

Each group selects hand-signals the will differentiate them native the various other groups. (Example: the plants may want to host their hands the end to their sides to represent leaves, the plant-eaters (oryx) may hold their hands on the heads to represent horns, and the predators (lions) may organize their hand up choose paws v the claws showing). The predators shot to tag the plant-eaters who try to tags the plants. Due to the fact that predators decompose once they die and become fertilizer, the plants try to tag the predators. When you room tagged, you rotate into every little thing tagged you.

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~ a duration of time, stop the video game to see how numerous plants, plant-eaters, and predators room left. Play need to resume however should be stopped a couple of times before the finish to recognize what has actually happened and also why. After playing a couple of rounds of the game, pick one that the plants to re-enter the video game as a human. The rules because that the human being are different: the human deserve to tag anyone, yet no one have the right to tag the human. Each time the human tags someone, that player becomes an additional human. See just how long that takes prior to all players have become adjusted into humans.

discuss the changes and also relationships that the video game illustrates. Some inquiries for discussion could include:

What happens to the plants and plant-eaters if many of the predators have actually been caught? What happens to the tree if countless of them have actually been caught? What happens when humans use too lot of the food chain? How have the right to we keep that from happening?