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You are watching: List the vessels involved in supplying and draining blood from the small and large intestines

Kvietys PR. The gastrointestinal Circulation. Mountain Rafael (CA): Morgan & Claypool Life Sciences; 2010.


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2.1. EXTRAMURAL BLOOD and also LYMPHATIC VESSELS

The significant arteries supplying the gastrointestinal tract are the celiac, premium mesenteric, and inferior mesenteric arteries. The celiac supplies the stomach and the proximal part of the little intestine (duodenum), the superior mesenteric provides the rest of the little intestine and also proximal part of the colon, while the inferior mesenteric offers the distal portion of the colon. The areas supplied by these three significant arterial conduits space not discrete, since there are many arcades of smaller sized arteries along the mesenteric border i beg your pardon anastomose with one another and carry out collateral blood flow. These arcades provide rise to vasa recta, who branches encircle the musculature of the stomach, little intestine, and colon and, ultimately, penetrate the muscularis and kind an arterial plexus in ~ the submucosa <1–3>.

The little veins draining the cradle tract normally parallel the arterial circuitry, consisting of the anastomoses, and deliver the venous effluent to the portal vein via three major tributaries. The splenic vein drains the stomach, the exceptional mesenteric vein drains the upper tiny intestine, if the worse mesenteric vein drains the distal portions of the colon. These three tributaries drainpipe into the portal vein, which gives the liver who venous effluent is delivered earlier to the love <2,4,5>.

The lymph ship draining the gastrointestinal tract run mainly in association v blood vessels and also enter miscellaneous lymph nodes. The efferent lymphatic vessels from the lymph nodes empty into the cisterna chyli and also join the systemic circulation via the thoracic duct <2,4–6>.


2.2. INTRAMURAL BLOOD and also LYMPHATIC VESSELS

In general, the major arterial vessels providing the mucosal and muscular layers of the gastrointestinal street originate indigenous the arterial plexus situated in the submucosa. Arterioles native the submucosa branch into capillary networks in the mucosa and in the longitudinal and circular muscle layers whereby they run in parallel come the smooth muscle fibers. In general, the arterial supply of the mucosa and the muscularis class of the gastrointestinal tract are arranged in parallel permitting for independent regulate of the blood supply to these two areas <7,8>. The lymphatic ship draining the mucosa and also the muscularis empty into the submucosal network of collecting lymphatics. In the muscularis, the lymphatic vessels operation close to blood ship with constant anastomoses with each various other <6>.

The microcirculations of the mucosal and muscularis class support essential functional activities, such together absorption/secretion and motor activity, respectively. The mucosal layer receives approximately 80% that the complete intramural blood flow; the muscularis receiving the staying 20% <9–11>. This is presumably as result of the more demanding metabolic activity of this layer. The mucosal microcirculation has a lot more complicated architecture than that the the muscularis, and there space some striking anatomical differences in between the mucosal microcirculation that the tiny intestine and that that the stomach and also colon.

In the stomach, submucosal arterioles branch into capillaries in ~ the basic of the glands and pass along the glands to the luminal surface of the mucosa whereby they kind a luminal capillary network (Figure 2.1) <12>. The capillary network bordering the glands is drained by venules close to the luminal surface ar of the mucosa and pass directly to the submucosal venous plexus without receiving any direct capillary tributaries in ~ the mucosa <8,12>. When viewed native the mucosal surface by confocal endomicroscopy, the capillary networks neighboring the glands the the gastric body exhibit a honeycomb-like figure <13>. The gastric pits that the antrum room surrounded by a “coil-shaped” capillary network. The early lymphatics room located below the gastric glands together a plexus. In general, no lymph vessels are found in the upper portion of the gastric mucosa <5,6,14>.


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FIGURE 2.1

The vascular organization of the gastric mucosa. The inset depicts the microvascular move of HCO3– from the acid secreting portion of the gastric pit come the surface ar epithelial cells. Provided with permission indigenous Gastroenterology 1984; pp. 866–875. (more...)


In the small intestine, the submucosal arterioles get in the mucosa to kind the villus microcirculation who pattern different among species <5>. In general, within human being villi, there is one eccentrically located single arteriole, which passes to the tip and forms a capillary fractional or tuft-like network with plenty of anastomoses v the solitary eccentrically located venule (Figure 2.2) <15>. The villus capillaries are situated within 2 µm of the epithelial cell <16>. The crypt capillary network (also derived from submucosal arterioles) supplies the obelisk of the villus and likewise drains into the venule exiting the villus.


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FIGURE 2.2

The vascular organization of the little intestinal mucosa. VA, villus arteriole; VV, villus venule. Used with permission native Microvasc. Res. 1972; 4: pp. 62–76.


The lymphatic device of the little intestine originates as a large centrally located vessel (lacteal) in ~ the villi (Figure 2.3). The apical portion of the lacteal has actually a “cul-de-sac” endothelium, ensuring the propulsion the lymph towards the collecting lymphatics as soon as the villus contracts. Although similar in dimension to the venular capillaries, they lack endothelial cabinet junctions, maybe to help in the move of chylomicra <5,17>.

See more: Movement From One Place To Another, Either Temporarily Or Permanently


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FIGURE 2.3

The mucosal–submucosal lymphatic company of the little and huge intestine. Used with permission indigenous Gastroenterology 1981; 81: pp. 1080–1090.


The colonic mucosal microvascular arrangement is comparable to that of the stomach. The feeding arterioles and their capillary branches pass along the glands to the luminal surface of the mucosa wherein they kind a capillary network neighboring the glands, presenting a honeycomb appearance once viewed native the surface <18,19>. The capillary density within the honeycomb networks is better in the proximal colon 보다 in the distal portion <20>. The colonic capillaries space situated much closer to the epithelium (1 μm) than their counterparts in the tiny intestine <16>. The early stage lymphatics of the colon originate near the basal aspect of the gastric glands wherein they type plexi (Figure 2.3); the upper portion of the colonic mucosa is devoid of lymphatic ship <16,21>.