The content that adheres to is the problem of general aramuseum.orgistry great 26. In this lecture we discuss the development of ionic and covalent bonding.

You are watching: Ionic bonds form between metals and nonmetals

Ionic Bonding

When we discussed bonding prior to we defined ionic compounds as the compound that type between metals and non-metals. This is true yet now we can look closer at just how these bond actually kind and understand an ext thoroughly why ions form in the very first place.

The reason ionic compounds kind is that the difference in electronegativity in between metals and non-metals is so good that the non-metals just take the electron from the metals developing ions of opposite charge. A difference in electronegativity of around 2 will show the formation of an ionic fairly than covalent bond. This number is a rough pointer not a difficult value. Usually our original meaning of metals and also non-metals do ionic compounds have to be maintained.


A pair of note on the formation of the ions. The ions type such the the electron configuration is made more energetically stable. Us said earlier that all ions kind to be like the Noble Gases. You can much better understand currently why this is true. An alert that v the loss of one electron Sodium"s electron configuration becomes the very same as Neon and with the enhancement of one electron Chloride"s electron construction becomes the same as Argon"s.

Ionic bonds kind once the electrons have actually transferred.


The development of the link produces energy called the Lattice Energy. This is the lot of energy released once one mole of ionic link is formed from gas ions.


Lattice energies boost with larger charge and smaller radii. The equation because that calculating the lattice power is presented above. Q is the fee on the ions and r is the radius of the ion.

Because the this large lattice energy, ionic binding are an extremely strong. Ionic compounds room solids hence as well.

Here is an interactive exercise for Ionic Bonds:

Covalent Bonds

Unlike ionic bonds, covalent bonds kind from the share of electrons. We defined covalent molecules as being made of non-metals. This an interpretation also holds true but again we can now see by use of the electron construction why these bonds type the method they do.

Valence Electrons

Bonds in Covalent molecules room made utilizing the Valence Electrons. The valence electrons are those discovered in the outermost covering of the electron configuration. We only discuss valence electrons v respect to the main (A) group elements.


The Noble Gases all have actually a s2p6 configuration. Because the electronegativities the the non-metals is not adequate to create ions, the only means for these elements to end up being like the noble gases is to share electrons to complete their ns orbitals.


By share the single electron Hydrogen has with another hydrogen or an additional element it can attain the 2 electrons that is necessary for a full 1s orbital.

For other non-metal elements, the require is to finish the ns orbital and achieve a complete eight electrons (octet). This require for 8 electrons in the outer shell of an aspect is referred to as the "Octet Rule".

See more: Br A Lens Is Transparent Material With, Refraction By Lenses

The variety of bonds an aspect needs to do is based upon the lot of mutual electrons it requirements to finish its octet. For example, Carbon has 4 valence electrons and therefore demands to make 4 bonds. Halogens have actually 7 valence electron so they commonly make a solitary bond to meet the Octet rule.