This week\"s element is xenon, a noble gas (or inert gas) with the symbol, Xe, and the atomic number, 54. Xenon is a clear and also colorless, and also odorless gas that is rather heavy. Xenon gas is 4.5 time heavier 보다 Earth\"s environment (which consists of a mixture of a number of gaseous elements and compounds). This element\"s mass originates from its nucleus, which includes 54 protons and a differing (but similar) number of neutrons. Xenon has actually 17 naturally-occurring isotope (the many for any kind of element), eight that which are stable, the many for any kind of element, except tin, which has actually ten.
Tiny amounts of two xenon isotopes, xenon-133 and also xenon-135, leak from nuclear reprocessing and power plants, however are exit in higher amounts after ~ a nuclear explosion that accident, such together what emerged at Fukushima. Thus, security xenon\"s isotopes have the right to ensure compliance with international nuclear test-ban contract and also to detect even if it is rogue countries are testing their own nuclear weapons.
Xenon was uncovered in 1898 in England by the Scottish chemist wilhelm Ramsay and English chemist Morris Travers. By examining the spectra emitted through the residue left end after evaporating contents of liquid air, they establish they\"d found another new element. Xenon is rarely on Earth, consist of of as tiny as 1 component in 20 million in Earth\"s atmosphere.
Xenon is provided in a variety of practical ways. That is more than likely most familiar since it is offered in photographic speed bulbs, in high push short-arc lamps for IMAX film projectors (these lamps room explosive, so they call for special care when being replaced), and in high push arc lamps to develop \"safe\" ultraviolet light for tanning beds and to sterilise things, such together benchtops in labs. Xenon is likewise used together a basic anaesthetic and in medical imaging.
But in mine opinion, xenon\"s most interesting use is together an ion thruster for room travel. NASA design a Xenon Ion journey engine that works by firing a beam of high-energy ions at very high speeds and with high efficiency. For example, the Deep an are 1 (DS1) probe shooting out ions at 146, 000 kilometers per hour (more 보다 88,000 mph). DS1 is probably most memorable for its two flyby encounters through Comet Borrelly in 2001.
Several amazing traits of hard xenon show up when it is subjected to pressures identical to 1.3 million times Earth\"s atmospheric pressure; it turns bright blue and also takes on the chemical properties of a metal.
Xenon is no toxic yet many of its compound are, together the result of their solid oxidizing properties.
Waitaminnit, girlfriend say. GrrlScientist simply said \"chemical compounds\". Xenon\"s inert, for this reason what\"s she ~ above about?
It\"s true: xenon can, under inexplicable conditions, kind compounds through a few other elements. In fact, xenon was the an initial of the noble gases to form a chemical compound under the guidance and also observation the a human. This experiment, originally conceived of through chemist Neil Bartlett and performed in 1962, proved that xenon can be oxidized by an additional gas, platinum hexafluoride (PtF6) to type a solid yellow compound, xenon hexafluoroplatinate.
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This seminal experiment forever changed how chemists think around the noble gases and also launched a new research ar in chemistry.
Here\"s our favourite chemistry professor telling us more about Neil Bartlett, about this specific experiment, and about xenon in general:
You\"ve currently met these elements:
Iodine: I, atomic number 53Tellurium: Te, atomic number 52Antimony: Sb, atom number 51Tin: Sn, atomic number 50Indium: In, atom number 49Cadmium: Cd, atom number 48Silver: Ag, atomic number 47Palladium: Pd, atom number 46Rhodium: Rh, atomic number 45Ruthenium: Ru, atomic number 44Technetium: Tc, atomic number 43Molybdenum: Mo, atomic number 42Niobium: Ni, atomic number 41Zirconium: Zr, atom number 40Yttrium: Y, atom number 39Strontium: Sr, atomic number 38Rubidium: Rr, atom number 37Krypton: Kr, atom number 36Bromine: Br, atomic number 35Selenium: Se, atomic number 34Arsenic: As, atomic number 33Germanium: Ge, atom number 32Gallium: Ga, atomic number 31Zinc: Zn, atom number 30Copper: Cu, atom number 29Nickel: Ni, atomic number 28Cobalt: Co, atom number 27Iron: Fe, atomic number 26Manganese: Mn, atomic number 25Chromium: Cr, atom number 24Vanadium: V, atom number 23Titanium: Ti, atom number 22Scandium: Sc, atom number 21Calcium: Ca, atomic number 20Potassium: K, atom number 19Argon: Ar, atom number 18Chlorine: Cl, atomic number 17Sulfur: S, atomic number 16Phosphorus: P, atom number 15Silicon: Si, atom number 14Aluminium: Al, atom number 13Magnesium: Mg, atom number 12Sodium: Na, atom number 11Neon: Ne, atom number 10Fluorine: F, atom number 9Oxygen: O, atomic number 8Nitrogen: N, atom number 7Carbon: C, atom number 6Boron: B, atomic number 5Beryllium: Be, atom number 4Lithium: Li, atomic number 3Helium: He, atom number 2Hydrogen: H, atomic number 1
Here\"s the Royal society of Chemistry\"s interactive regular Table that the aspects that is just really really fun to pat with!