ns was reading an article about a chemical reaction, and I came across the phrase:

The oxygen atom at this suggest has 3 bonds and also has a net hopeful charge

How can this happen? Oxygen has actually 2 absent electrons in the valence shell. Thus it can only type 2 bonds at the most, if both are sigma bonds.

Does it mean the 3rd bond is not covalent? have the right to it occur with a hydrogen or an ionic bond?

Consider the auto-ionization that water :

$ce 2H_2O->H_3O+ + OH-$

The an initial oxygen has actually three bonds, the second only has actually one.

You are watching: How many bonds does oxygen make

You deserve to think of the reaction occurring by a lone pair on the oxygen the one water molecule ripping turn off the proton just of the hydrogen of an additional water molecule to kind a covalent bond in between them using simply the lone pair. The electron the the hydrogen is left behind and also stays v the oxygen the the other molecule.

If you calculation the formal charges on every oxygen friend will watch the an initial one has a optimistic charge and also the 2nd one has a negative. The formal fee is simply the valence number of electrons minus the number of bonds minus non-bonding electron (using the lewis structure) and also is a advantageous book keeping technique to think around where the electrons go/are and what space the most stable structures.

Formal charge Calculation

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edited january 28 "17 at 2:13
answered jan 28 "17 at 0:57

Cliff StampCliff stamp
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Apart indigenous hydronium ion $ceH3O+$, there space some various other molecules or ion which possess three oxygen bonds. All pictures taken native Wikipedia

Carbon monoxide

Ozone

Nitrosonium ion

Transition steel aqua complex

Here every oxygen has three solitary bonds, one with the central metal and also other two with tho hydrogens.

Transition metal oxo complex

trismesityliridium oxide

And over there are many more.....

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edited january 28 "17 at 8:15
answered january 28 "17 in ~ 4:35

Nilay GhoshNilay Ghosh
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Oxygen has actually $6$ electrons in the outermost shell.

However, if you provide it a positive charge by remove an electron, climate it would only have $5$ electrons in that is outermost shell.

Therefore, it deserve to now native $3$ bond while carrying a optimistic charge.

You can usually watch trivalent oxygen in intermediates the reactions, because you have the right to protonate a bivalent oxygen to do it trivalent, and also then cleave among the original two binding to leave yourself with new molecules.

A bivalent oxygen is additionally easily protonated due to the fact that it has a lone pair, making it a nucleophile.

Trivalent oxygen intermediates in organic reactions are additionally resonance-stabilized due to the fact that the confident charge deserve to be shared by the carbon in instant vicinity.

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answered january 28 "17 at 3:47

DHMODHMO
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