ns was reading an article about a chemical reaction, and I came across the phrase:

The oxygen atom at this suggest has 3 bonds and also has a net hopeful charge

How can this happen? Oxygen has actually 2 absent electrons in the valence shell. Thus it can only type 2 bonds at the most, if both are sigma bonds.

Does it mean the 3rd bond is not covalent? have the right to it occur with a hydrogen or an ionic bond?


Consider the auto-ionization that water :

$ce 2H_2O->H_3O+ + OH-$

The an initial oxygen has actually three bonds, the second only has actually one.

You are watching: How many bonds does oxygen make

You deserve to think of the reaction occurring by a lone pair on the oxygen the one water molecule ripping turn off the proton just of the hydrogen of an additional water molecule to kind a covalent bond in between them using simply the lone pair. The electron the the hydrogen is left behind and also stays v the oxygen the the other molecule.

If you calculation the formal charges on every oxygen friend will watch the an initial one has a optimistic charge and also the 2nd one has a negative. The formal fee is simply the valence number of electrons minus the number of bonds minus non-bonding electron (using the lewis structure) and also is a advantageous book keeping technique to think around where the electrons go/are and what space the most stable structures.

Formal charge Calculation

boost this answer
edited january 28 "17 at 2:13
answered jan 28 "17 at 0:57

Cliff StampCliff stamp
52944 silver- badges88 bronze title
| show 1 an ext comment
Apart indigenous hydronium ion $ceH3O+$, there space some various other molecules or ion which possess three oxygen bonds. All pictures taken native Wikipedia

Carbon monoxide




Nitrosonium ion


Transition steel aqua complex


Here every oxygen has three solitary bonds, one with the central metal and also other two with tho hydrogens.

Transition metal oxo complex


Namely vanadyl chloride, tungsten oxocarbonyl


trismesityliridium oxide

And over there are many more.....

improve this answer
edited january 28 "17 at 8:15
answered january 28 "17 in ~ 4:35

Nilay GhoshNilay Ghosh
20.9k2020 gold badges7373 silver badges156156 bronze badges
include a comment |
Oxygen has actually $6$ electrons in the outermost shell.

However, if you provide it a positive charge by remove an electron, climate it would only have $5$ electrons in that is outermost shell.

Therefore, it deserve to now native $3$ bond while carrying a optimistic charge.

You can usually watch trivalent oxygen in intermediates the reactions, because you have the right to protonate a bivalent oxygen to do it trivalent, and also then cleave among the original two binding to leave yourself with new molecules.

A bivalent oxygen is additionally easily protonated due to the fact that it has a lone pair, making it a nucleophile.

Trivalent oxygen intermediates in organic reactions are additionally resonance-stabilized due to the fact that the confident charge deserve to be shared by the carbon in instant vicinity.

enhance this answer
answered january 28 "17 at 3:47

4,7551919 silver badges4444 bronze badges
add a comment |

her Answer

Thanks because that contributing response to aramuseum.org stack Exchange!

Please be sure to answer the question. Administer details and share your research!

But avoid

Asking for help, clarification, or responding to other answers.Making statements based upon opinion; ago them up with references or an individual experience.

Use MathJax to style equations. MathJax reference.

To discover more, see our advice on writing good answers.

See more: I Ha V Bernardelli Gardone Vt Cal 22, Bernardelli Model Pistol

Draft saved
Draft discarded

Sign increase or log in in

sign up using Google
sign up utilizing Facebook
authorize up making use of Email and Password

Post together a guest

email Required, yet never shown

Post together a guest


Required, yet never shown

article Your prize Discard

By click “Post your Answer”, friend agree to our regards to service, privacy policy and also cookie plan

Not the price you're looking for? Browse various other questions tagged shortcut or ask your own question.

Featured top top Meta
Bonding and also coordination the oxygen in a Ga2O3 decision structure
Why can't NH5 form?
Why doesn't Oxygen form coordinate covalent bonds?
Bonding in the phosphate ion
just how does a carbocation have actually a optimistic charge?
deserve to 100% covalent bonds exist?
How have the right to three p orbitals every atom link in believe (II) sulfide?
Why go magnesium type covalent bonds with carbon?
Why is the force continuous for double and triple bond approximately dual and triple of the of a single bonds?
just valence shell electrons participate in bonding then how is Cr in H2CrO4 creating 6 covalent bond although it has actually only 1 valence electron?
warm Network questions much more hot concerns

inquiry feed
subscribe to RSS
inquiry feed To i ordered it to this RSS feed, copy and paste this URL right into your RSS reader.


ridge Exchange Network
site architecture / logo © 2021 ridge Exchange Inc; user contributions license is granted under cc by-sa. Rev2021.11.10.40705

aramuseum.org ridge Exchange works best with JavaScript permitted

her privacy

By clicking “Accept all cookies”, girlfriend agree ridge Exchange have the right to store cookie on your machine and disclose info in accordance v our Cookie Policy.