ns was reading an article about a chemical reaction, and I came across the phrase:

The oxygen atom at this suggest has 3 bonds and also has a net hopeful charge

How can this happen? Oxygen has actually 2 absent electrons in the valence shell. Thus it can only type 2 bonds at the most, if both are sigma bonds.

Does it mean the 3rd bond is not covalent? have the right to it occur with a hydrogen or an ionic bond?


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Consider the auto-ionization that water :

$ce 2H_2O->H_3O+ + OH-$

The an initial oxygen has actually three bonds, the second only has actually one.

You are watching: How many bonds does oxygen make

You deserve to think of the reaction occurring by a lone pair on the oxygen the one water molecule ripping turn off the proton just of the hydrogen of an additional water molecule to kind a covalent bond in between them using simply the lone pair. The electron the the hydrogen is left behind and also stays v the oxygen the the other molecule.

If you calculation the formal charges on every oxygen friend will watch the an initial one has a optimistic charge and also the 2nd one has a negative. The formal fee is simply the valence number of electrons minus the number of bonds minus non-bonding electron (using the lewis structure) and also is a advantageous book keeping technique to think around where the electrons go/are and what space the most stable structures.

Formal charge Calculation


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edited january 28 "17 at 2:13
answered jan 28 "17 at 0:57
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Apart indigenous hydronium ion $ceH3O+$, there space some various other molecules or ion which possess three oxygen bonds. All pictures taken native Wikipedia

Carbon monoxide

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Ozone

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Nitrosonium ion

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Transition steel aqua complex

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Here every oxygen has three solitary bonds, one with the central metal and also other two with tho hydrogens.

Transition metal oxo complex

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Namely vanadyl chloride, tungsten oxocarbonyl

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trismesityliridium oxide

And over there are many more.....


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edited january 28 "17 at 8:15
answered january 28 "17 in ~ 4:35
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Nilay GhoshNilay Ghosh
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Oxygen has actually $6$ electrons in the outermost shell.

However, if you provide it a positive charge by remove an electron, climate it would only have $5$ electrons in that is outermost shell.

Therefore, it deserve to now native $3$ bond while carrying a optimistic charge.

You can usually watch trivalent oxygen in intermediates the reactions, because you have the right to protonate a bivalent oxygen to do it trivalent, and also then cleave among the original two binding to leave yourself with new molecules.

A bivalent oxygen is additionally easily protonated due to the fact that it has a lone pair, making it a nucleophile.

Trivalent oxygen intermediates in organic reactions are additionally resonance-stabilized due to the fact that the confident charge deserve to be shared by the carbon in instant vicinity.


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answered january 28 "17 at 3:47
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