6.4 Ionic bonding (ESABW)

The nature the the ionic shortcut (ESABX)

When electrons room transferred from one atom to one more it is referred to as ionic bonding.

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Electronegativity is a building of one atom, describing just how strongly it attracts or holds top top electrons. Ionic bonding takes place when the distinction in electronegativity between the two atoms is much more than ( ext1,7). This generally happens once a metal atom bonds through a non-metal atom. Once the difference in electronegativity is large, one atom will lure the common electron pair much much more strongly 보다 the other, leading to electrons to be transferred to the atom with greater electronegativity. Once ionic binding form, a metal donates one or much more electrons, because of having a short electronegativity, to type a confident ion or cation. The non-metal atom has a high electronegativity, and therefore conveniently gains electrons to type a negative ion or anion. The two ions are then attractive to each various other by electrostatic forces.

Ionic link

An ionic link is a form of chemistry bond wherein one or much more electrons space transferred indigenous one atom come another.

Example 1:

In the case of ( extNaCl), the distinction in electronegativity in between ( extNa) (( ext0,93)) and ( extCl) (( ext3,16)) is ( ext2,1). Sodium has actually only one valence electron, when chlorine has seven. Since the electronegativity the chlorine is higher than the electronegativity of sodium, chlorine will attract the valence electron that the salt atom an extremely strongly. This electron from salt is transferred to chlorine. Salt loses one electron and also forms an ( extNa^+) ion.

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Chlorine gains an electron and forms a ( extCl^-) ion.

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Chlorine is a diatomic molecule and so because that it come take part in ionic bonding, it must first break up into two atom of chlorine. Salt is component of a metallic lattice and the individual atom must first break away from the lattice.


The electron is because of this transferred from sodium to chlorine:

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Figure 6.1: Ionic bonding in sodium chloride

The balanced equation for the reaction is:

<2 extNa + extCl_2 ightarrow 2 extNaCl>

Example 2:

Another example of ionic bonding bring away place between magnesium (( extMg)) and oxygen (( extO_2)) to kind magnesium oxide (( extMgO)). Magnesium has two valence electrons and also an electronegativity of ( ext1,31), while oxygen has six valence electrons and an electronegativity of ( ext3,44). Since oxygen has a greater electronegativity, it attracts the 2 valence electron from the magnesium atom and also these electrons space transferred indigenous the magnesium atom come the oxygen atom. Magnesium loses 2 electrons to form ( extMg^2+), and also oxygen gains 2 electrons to type ( extO^2-). The attractive force in between the oppositely charged ions is what hold the compound together.

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The balanced equation for the reaction is:

<2 extMg + extO_2 ightarrow 2 extMgO>

Because oxygen is a diatomic molecule, two magnesium atoms will be essential to integrate with one oxygen molecule (which has actually two oxygen atoms) to develop two units of magnesium oxide (( extMgO)).

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The crystal lattice structure of ionic link (ESABY)

Ionic substances space actually a combination of numerous ions external inspection together right into a huge molecule. The setup of ions in a regular, geometric structure is referred to as a crystal lattice. For this reason in reality ( extNaCl) does not contain one ( extNa) and one ( extCl) ion, however rather a many these two ions arranged in a crystal lattice whereby the ratio of ( extNa) to ( extCl) ion is 1:1. The structure of the crystal lattice is shown below.

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Figure 6.2: The crystal lattice arrangement in ( extNaCl)

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Figure 6.3: A space filling design of the sodium chloride lattice

Properties that ionic compound (ESABZ)

Ionic compounds have actually a number of properties:

Ions are arranged in a lattice structure

Ionic solids room crystalline at room temperature

The ionic bond is a strong electrostatic attraction. This way that ionic compound are often hard and have high melting and boiling points

Ionic compounds room brittle and bonds are broken along planes once the compound is put under push (stressed)