Since the end of the 2018 lower eastern Rift region (LERZ) eruption on Kīlauea Volcano, questions have surfaced concerning how long it will take because that the new lava flows to solidify. This is a daunting question to answer, since the initial eruptive temperatures along with many different determinants can influence the rate of cooling.

You are watching: How long does it take for magma to cool


*

This ‘a‘ā flow erupted indigenous fissure 8 on Kīlauea Volcano"s lower eastern Rift Zone on June 1, 2018, shows just how the interior of a lava circulation remains incandescently hot also though surface ar cooling creates a late of heavy rubble. Based upon studies that lava flow cooling rates, it will certainly take much more than 130 days for a circulation this thick (about 4.5 m, or 15 ft) to cool come a temperature of around 200 degrees Celsius (290 degrees Fahrenheit).


Eruptive lava temperatures of the 2018 LERZ eruption reached a preferably of around 1140 degrees Celsius (2080 levels Fahrenheit). As soon as the whole flow cools below around 1000 levels Celsius (1800 levels Fahrenheit), it has actually solidified, yet the inner is still very hot.

Arguably the most influential variable determining how quick lava cools is the thickness that the flow. Other components include warmth loss from both the optimal (to the atmosphere) and bottom the a circulation (into the ground). Contributing to heat loss in ~ the flow"s surface are air temperature, rainfall, and also wind.

The early stage contact in between a lava flow, the air above it, and also ground surface listed below it, easily hardens the outer crust (top and bottom) of the flow. This is apparent in the silvery tardy that creates on energetic pāhoehoe flows and the rubbly clinker that surrounds active ‘a‘ā flows. As the late cools and thickens, the retains warm within the flow"s interior. This is since the late is a an excellent insulator, meaning it poorly conducts heat—similar to how an insulated thermos keeps liquid inside it hot.

After the initial formation of crust, the flow proceeds to lose warm through radiation and also conduction, helped with by wind and rain. Together rain water percolates into cracks in the flow"s surface and also encounters the hot interior, the produces steam, developing the billowy white plumes frequently seen over energetic (or freshly active) flows. This steaming deserve to persist for decades, lengthy after the lava has solidified, depending upon the thickness of the flow and the temperature the its interior.

Based on a study of crustal cooling of pāhoehoe lava operation in Kalapana erupted from the east Rift region Kupaianaha vent in 1990, we can estimate the solidification time because that the 2018 LERZ flows. Due to the fact that the equation only looks in ~ cooling the the lava flow"s top crust, the basal crust thickness is assumed to equal 70 percent the the upper crust according to this study.

The Kalapana dimensions were make on thin pāhoehoe flows, however most the the 2018 LERZ lava is ‘a‘ā. However, because the main point of each flow kind should cool at comparable rates, we room basing 2018 cooling rates on the 1990 study. Also, the note, the flows studied in 1990 were lot thinner with much shorter cooling rates and also may no account for long-term transforms in wind and rain patterns.

Preliminary analyses the the 2018 LERZ eruption circulation thicknesses, imply that the average circulation thickness is roughly 10–15 m (33–50 ft). Based on the cooling rate calculation, it can take roughly 8 months to 1.5 years because that flows of this thicknesses come solidify.

Solidification the flows ranging 20–30 m (65–100 ft) thick can take about 2.5–6 years. The thickest LERZ operation on land, i beg your pardon are roughly 55 m (180 ft) thick, might take roughly 20 years to with a completely solid state.

Because circulation thickness, wind speeds, rainfall amounts, air and also ground temperatures, and other factors all impact lava cooling rates, there is a variety of uncertainty on just how long the internal of a flow remains liquid. Because that example, after ~ the 1959 Kīlauea Iki eruption, the roughly 135 m (440 ft) deep lava lake took about 35 year to completely solidify, and the internal of the lake can still be hot enough today the the absent is incandescent. This is why, on merganser days, you have the right to see vapor rising from the Kīlauea Iki crater floor, and also the Kīlauea caldera floor.

With flow crust being together an effective insulator, it have the right to take years to years for lava within thick operation to solidify. The takes much longer for the flow to cool come ambient temperatures.

Next week"s Volcano clock will deal with in an ext detail the thicknesses that lava operation from Kīlauea"s 2018 lower east Rift region eruption.

Volcano task Update

Kīlauea is not erupting. Rates of seismicity, deformation, and also gas release have actually not adjusted significantly over the past week.

Two earthquakes with 3 or much more felt reports occurred in Hawai‘i during the previous week: a magnitude-3.0 quake 7 kilometres (4 mi) southern of Leilani manors at 8 kilometres (5 mi) depth ~ above Feb. 22 at 2:31 a.m. HST, and a magnitude-3.2 quake 17 kilometres (11 mi) southeast of Volcano at 7 km (4 mi) depth ~ above Feb. 21 in ~ 11:32 a.m. HST.

Deformation signals are constant with refilling that Kīlauea Volcano"s deep eastern Rift ar (ERZ) magma reservoir. Sulfur dioxide emission rates ~ above the ERZ and at Kīlauea"s summit stay low.

See more: Does The Hyoid Bone Have Any Solid Bony Attachments ? Exercise 8 Flashcards

Hazardous conditions still exist in ~ both the reduced ERZ and also summit the Kīlauea. Residents and also visitors in the reduced Puna District and Kīlauea summit areas on the Island of Hawai‘i must stay informed and also heed Hawai‘i County polite Defense closures, warnings, and also messages (http://www.hawaiicounty.gov/active-alerts). HVO proceeds to carefully monitor Kīlauea for any type of sign of raised activity.