Iodine

Element 53 of Periodic table is Iodine with atomic number 53, atomic weight 126.90447. Iodine, symbol I, has a Base Centered Orthorhombic structure and SlateGray color. Iodine is a halogens element. Trivial name of Iodine is halogens*. Know everything about Iodine Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.


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Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53. The name is from Greek ἰοειδής ioeidēs, meaning violet or purple, due to the color of iodine vapor. Iodine and its compounds are primarily used in nutrition, and industrially in the production of acetic acid and certain polymers.

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Iodine Facts

Read key information and facts about element Iodine

Name Iodine
Atomic Number 53
Atomic Symbol I
Atomic Weight 126.90447
Phase Solid
Color SlateGray
Classification halogens
Group in Periodic Table 17
Group Name fluorine family
Period in Periodic Table 5
Block in Periodic Table p-block
Electronic Configuration 4d10 5s2 5p5
Melting Point 113.7 °C
Boiling Point 184.3 °C
Electronic Shell Structure <2, 8, 18, 18, 7>
CAS Number CAS7553-56-2

Neighborhood
34
Se
35
Br
36
Kr
52
Te
53
I
54
Xe
84
Po
85
At
86
Rn
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
1
1
H
2
He
2
3
Li
4
Be
5
B
6
C
7
N
8
O
9
F
10
Ne
3
11
Na
12
Mg
13
Al
14
Si
15
P
16
S
17
Cl
18
Ar
4
19
K
20
Ca
21
Sc
22
Ti
23
V
24
Cr
25
Mn
26
Fe
27
Co
28
Ni
29
Cu
30
Zn
31
Ga
32
Ge
33
As
34
Se
35
Br
36
Kr
5
37
Rb
38
Sr
39
Y
40
Zr
41
Nb
42
Mo
43
Tc
44
Ru
45
Rh
46
Pd
47
Ag
48
Cd
49
In
50
Sn
51
Sb
52
Te
53
I
54
Xe
6
55
Cs
56
Ba
72
Hf
73
Ta
74
W
75
Re
76
Os
77
Ir
78
Pt
79
Au
80
Hg
81
Tl
82
Pb
83
Bi
84
Po
85
At
86
Rn
7
87
Fr
88
Ra
104
Rf
105
Db
106
Sg
107
Bh
108
Hs
109
Mt
110
Ds
111
Rg
112
Cn
113
Nh
114
Fl
115
Mc
116
Lv
117
Ts
118
Og
Lanthanides
57
La
58
Ce
59
Pr
60
Nd
61
Pm
62
Sm
63
Eu
64
Gd
65
Tb
66
Dy
67
Ho
68
Er
69
Tm
70
Yb
71
Lu
Actinide
89
Ac
90
Th
91
Pa
92
U
93
Np
94
Pu
95
Am
96
Cm
97
Bk
98
Cf
99
Es
100
Fm
101
Md
102
No
103
Lr

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How to Locate Iodine on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 53 to find Iodine on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Iodine on periodic table look for cross section of group 17 and period 5 in the modern periodic table.

Explore Interactive Periodic Table to Understand and Learn Cool Trends

Table of Contents


History
Abundance
Physical Properties
Thermal Properties
Crystal Structure
Atomic & Orbital Properties
Chemical Properties
Isotopes
Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines
Databases
Compare Iodine with other elements

Iodine History

The element Iodine was discovered by Bernard Courtois in year 1811 in France . Iodine derived its name from French iode (after the Greek ioeides, "violet")

Iodine Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Iodine in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth"s Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe 1×10-7%
Abundance in Sun N/A
Abundance in Meteorites 2.5e-07
Abundance in Earth"s Crust 4.9e-07
Abundance in Oceans 6×10-6%
Abundance in Humans 2e-07

Crystal Structure of Iodine

The solid state structure of Iodine is Base Centered Orthorhombic.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

a b c
718.02 471.02 981.03 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alpha beta gamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group Name Cmca
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Space Group Number 64
Crystal Structure Base Centered Orthorhombic

Iodine Atomic and Orbital Properties

Iodine atoms have 53 electrons and the electronic shell structure is <2, 8, 18, 18, 7> with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2P3/2.


Atomic Number 53
Number of Electrons (with no charge) 53
Number of Protons 53
Mass Number 127
Number of Neutrons 74
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level) <2, 8, 18, 18, 7>
Electron Configuration 4d10 5s2 5p5
Valence Electrons 5s2 5p5
Oxidation State -1 1;3;4;5;6;7
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2P3/2

Shell Structure of Iodine - Electrons per energy level


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Ground State Electronic Configuration of Iodine - neutral Iodine atom

The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Iodine atom is 4d10 5s2 5p5. The portion of Iodine configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as . For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 4d10 5s2 5p5, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

See more: Why Zero Is Zero A Multiple Of Every Number ? Multiples — Definition & Examples

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Iodine

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Iodine atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p5

Atomic Structure of Iodine

Iodine atomic radius is 115 pm, while it"s covalent radius is 133 pm.

Atomic Radius

115 pm (1.15 Å)

Atomic Volume 25.6891639676 cm3
Covalent Radius 133 pm (1.33 Å)
Van der Waals Radius 198 pm
Neutron Cross Section 6.2 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum of Iodine

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Iodine Chemical Properties: Iodine Ionization Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of Iodine is 295.2 kJ/mol

Valence 7
Electronegativity 2.66
ElectronAffinity 295.2 kJ/mol

Ionization Energy of Iodine

Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Iodine

Ionization energy number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 1008.4
2 1845.9
3 3180

Iodine Physical Properties

Refer to below table for Iodine Physical Properties

Density 4.94 g/cm3
Molar Volume 25.6891639676 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus N/A
Shear Modulus N/A
Bulk Modulus 7.7 GPa
Poisson Ratio N/A

Hardness of Iodine - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

Mohs Hardness N/A
Vickers Hardness N/A
Brinell Hardness N/A

Iodine Electrical Properties

Iodine is Insulator of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties of Iodine

Electrical Conductivity 1×10-7 S/m
Resistivity 1×107 m Ω
Superconducting Point N/A

Iodine Heat and Conduction Properties

Thermal Conductivity 0.449 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion N/A

Iodine Magnetic Properties

Magnetic Type Diamagnetic
Curie Point N/A
Mass Magnetic Susceptibility -4.5×10-9
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility -1.14×10-9
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility -2.22e-05

Optical Properties of Iodine

Refractive Index N/A

Acoustic Properties of Iodine

Speed of Sound N/A

Iodine Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Iodine

Melting Point 386.85 K (113.7 °C)
Boiling Point 457.4 K (184.3 °C)
Critical Temperature 819 K
Superconducting Point N/A

Enthalpies of Iodine

Heat of Fusion 7.76 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 20.9 kJ/mol
Heat of Combustion N/A

Iodine Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Iodine

Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally occurring Iodine has 1 stable isotope - 127I.


Isotope Isotope Mass % Abundance T half Decay Mode
108I
109I
110I
111I
112I
113I
114I
115I
116I
117I
118I
119I
120I
121I
122I
123I
124I
125I
126I
127I 100% Stable N/A
128I
129I
130I
131I
132I
133I
134I
135I
136I
137I
138I
139I
140I
141I
142I
143I
144I

Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7553-56-2
RTECS Number RTECSNN1575000
DOT Hazard Class 8
DOT Numbers 1759
EU Number N/A
NFPA Fire Rating 0
NFPA Hazards N/A
NFPA Health Rating 3
NFPA Reactivity Rating 0
Autoignition Point N/A
Flashpoint N/A

Database Search

List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

Database Identifier number
CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) CAS7553-56-2
CID Number CID807
Gmelin Number N/A
NSC Number N/A
RTECS Number RTECSNN1575000

Compare Iodine with all Group 17 elements

Iodine vs Fluorine Iodine vs Chlorine Iodine vs Bromine Iodine vs Astatine Iodine vs Tennessine

Compare Iodine with all halogens elements

Iodine vs Fluorine Iodine vs Chlorine Iodine vs Bromine Iodine vs Astatine Iodine vs Tennessine