IntroductionArrhenius ide of Acids and BasesBronsted concept of Acids and also BasesPolyprotic Acids and also BasesAmphiprotic


Acids and also bases are common substances and also the principle of acids and bases have progressed as science progressed. There space three interpretations that you will certainly be required to know by the end of this chapter, the Arrhenius, Brønsted-Lowry and also Lewis. In general aramuseum.orgistry 1, ar 3.5 girlfriend learned just how to balance acid Base Reactions and may want to testimonial that section. There are 4 videos because that balancing:

solid Acid and strong Base strong Acid and also Weak Base strong Base and Weak acid Weak Acid and Weak Base



Figure \(\PageIndex2\): Acid/base conjugate pair relationship

From number 16.1.2 you deserve to see the hydronium is the conjugate acid of water, and also chloride is the conjugate basic of HCl. This is vital as it can be used to define the acid/base habits of salt solutions.

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Polyprotic Acids and also Bases

An mountain that can donate more than one proton is a polyprotic acid, and also a basic that can accept more than one proton is a polyprotic base


Figure\(\PageIndex3\): Note, not all protons room acidic. In the case of oxyacids, whereby oxygen is attached come a non-metal, just the proton attached to the oxygen are acidic. This is why H3PO3 and also H3PO2 are diprotic and monoprotic respectively.

monoprotic acids, HCl, HC2H3O2 (acetic mountain only has one acidic proton) diprotic mountain - H2SO4, H2CO3, H2SO3 ,H3PO3, triprotic acids - H3PO4, H3AsO4, H3BO3

monoprotic bases: NaF, NaCl, NaBr (soluble salts) diprotic bases, Ba(OH)2, Na2SO4, (any anion through a <-2> charge have the right to accept 2 protons to become neutral triprotic bases, Na3PO4, K3AsO4, Na3BO3, (any anion through a <-3> charge)

Note: Polyprotic acids and also bases react stepwise forming intermediates:

Diprotic Acid

Sulfurous acid is a diprotic acid and forms one intermediate, bisulfite (HSO3-) (or hydrogen sulfite)


\<\textH_2\textSO_3 + \textH_2\textO \rightleftharpoons \textH_3\textO^+ + \textH\textSO_3^-\>


\<\textH\textSO_3^- + \textH_2\textO \rightleftharpoons \textH_3\textO^+ + \textSO_3^2-\>

Because sulfurous mountain is a weak mountain you have actually an equilibrium through all three varieties existing, H2SO3, HSO3- and also SO3-2.

Diprotic Base

The carbonate ion, CO32–, is an example of a diprotic base and note it has actually one intermediate, bicarbonate (HCO3-) .


\<\textCO_3^2- + \textH_2\textO \rightleftharpoons \textHCO_3^- + \textOH^-\>



\<\textHCO_3^- + \textH_2\textO \rightleftharpoons \textH_2\textCO_3^ + \textOH^-\>

At equilibrium you would have actually a mixture that all 3 species, H2CO3, HCO3- and also CO3-2.

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Substances that have the right to donate or expropriate protons are called amphiprotic, and also thus can act as both a Bronsted mountain or a Bronsted base. Note, over there is a similiar term called amphoteric, which way a substance have the right to be an mountain or a base. All amphiprotic substances are amphoteric, but there room some amphoteric substances in ~ the Lewis Acid/Base saramuseum.orge that perform not show off proton transfer. These will certainly be spanned in the last ar of this chapter.