A tower case sits upright and can be as high as two feet and has room for several drives. Often used for servers, this Type of case is also good for PC users who anticipate upgrading, because tower cases provide maximum space for working inside a computer and moving components around. A desktop case lies flat and sometimes serves double-duty as a monitor stand.

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Both ports are used to transmit video but a DVI port can transmit digital or analog video while the HDMI can only transmit digital video. However, the HDMI port can also transmit digital audio at the same time as digital video.
4. List three reasons you should use matching form factors for the motherboard power supply, and case.
Using matching form factors assures you that: The motherboard fits in the case. The power supply cords to the motherboard provide the correct voltage, and the connectors match the connections on the board. The holes in the motherboard align with the holes in the case for anchoring the board to the case. The holes in the case align with ports coming off the motherboard. For some form factors, wires for switches and lights on the front of the case match up with connections on the motherboard. The holes in the power supply align with holes in the case for anchoring the power supply to the case.
The PATA interface, also called the IDE interface, uses a wide 40-pin ribbon cable and connector. The standard allows for only two connectors on a motherboard for two data cables. Each IDE ribbon cable has a connection at the other end for an IDE drive and a connection in the middle of the cable for a second IDE drive. Using this interface, a motherboard can accommodate up to four IDE or PATA drives in one system. PATA drives use a 4-pin power connector called a Molex power connector. A Molex connector is shaped so it connects in only one direction.
Electricity can be either AC, alternating current, or DC, direct current. Alternating current (AC) goes back and forth, or oscillates, rather than traveling in only one direction. Voltage in the system is constantly alternating from positive to negative, which causes the electricity to flow first in one direction and then in the other. Direct current (DC) travels in only one direction and is the type of current that most electronic devices require, including computers.
AC travels on a hot line from the power station to a building and returns to the power station on a neutral line. When the two lines reach the building and enter an electrical device, such as a lamp, the device controls the flow of electricity between the hot and neutral lines. If an easier path (one with less resistance) is available, the electricity follows that path. This can cause a short, a sudden increase in flow that can also create a sudden increase in temperature—enough to start a fire and injure both people and equipment. To prevent uncontrolled electricity in a short, the neutral line is grounded. Grounding a line means that the line is connected directly to the earth, so that, in the event of a short, the electricity flows into the earth and not back to the power station.
The power cord is frayed or otherwise damaged in any way. Water or other liquid is on the floor around the device or spilled on it. The device has been exposed to excess moisture.The device has been dropped or you notice physical damage. You smell a strong electronics odor. The power supply or fans are making a whining noise. You notice smoke coming from the computer case or the case feels unusually warm.
A ground bracelet, also called an ESD strap, antistatic wrist strap, or ESD bracelet, is a strap you wear around your wrist. The strap has a cord attached with an alligator clip on the end. Attach the clip to the computer case you"re working on. Any static electricity between you and the case is now discharged. Therefore, as you work inside the case, you will not damage the components with static electricity. The bracelet also contains a resistor that prevents electricity from harming you.
Rule 1: When passing a circuit board, memory module, or other sensitive component to another person, ground yourself and then touch the other person before you pass the component.Rule 2: Leave components inside their protective bags until you are ready to use them.Rule 3: Work on hard floors, not carpet, or use antistatic spray on the carpets.Rule 4: Don"t work on a computer if you or the computer have just come in from the cold because there is more danger of ESD when the atmosphere is cold and dry.Rule 5: When unpacking hardware or software, remove the packing tape and cellophane from the work area as soon as possible because these materials attract ESD.Rule 6: Keep components away from your hair and clothing.
Make notes as you work so that you can backtrack later if necessary. Remove loose jewelry that might get caught in cables and components as you work. To stay organized and not lose small parts, keep screws and spacers orderly and in one place, such as a cup or tray. Don"t stack boards on top of each other. When handling motherboards, cards, or drives, don"t touch the chips on the device. Hold expansion cards by the edges. To protect a microchip, don"t touch it with a magnetized screwdriver. Never ever touch the inside of a computer that is turned on. Never remove the cover or put your hands inside a monitor or power supply. As you work, remember to watch out for sharp edges on computer cases that can cut you. In a classroom environment, after you have reassembled everything, have your instructor check your work before you put the cover back on and power up.
13. What should you do after you unplug the computer to be sure the power supply is completely drained?
Press and hold down the power button for a moment.
14. What should you do to dissipate any charge between you and the computer?
Clip your ground bracelet to the side of the computer case.
15. What should you do before disconnecting the wires leading from the front of the computer case to the motherboard if you don"t have the motherboard manual handy?
Be very careful to diagram how these wires connect because they are never labeled well on a motherboard.
A motherboard is installed so that the bottom of the board does not touch the case. If the fine traces or lines on the bottom of the board were to touch the case, a short would result when the system is running. To keep the board from touching the case, spacers or standoffs may be used.
17. List and describe three front panel connectors you will likely see going from the front panel to the motherboard.
Power SW. Controls power to the motherboard; must be connected for the PC to power up HDD LED. Controls the drive activity light on the front panel that lights up when any SATA or IDE device is in use (HDD stands for hard disk drive; LED stands for light-emitting diode) Power LED+. Positive LED controls the power light and indicates that power is onPower LED-. Negative LED controls the power light; the two positive and negative leads indicate that power is on Reset SW. Switch used to reboot the computer
The cooler sits on top of the processor and consists of a fan and a heat sink. A heat sink uses fins that draw heat away from the processor. The fan can then blow the heat away.
Using liquid cooling, a small pump sits inside the computer case, and tubes move liquid around components and then away from them to a place where fans can cool the liquid, similar to how a car radiator works.
20. What are two major points you should keep in mind when selecting the correct wattage capacity for a power supply?
Video cards draw the most power. Video cards draw the most power in a system, and they draw from the +12 V output. If your system has a video card, pay particular attention to the +12 V rating. The trend nowadays is for the motherboard to provide the video components and video port, thus reducing the overall wattage needs for a system. The power supply should be rated about 30 percent higher than expected needs. Power supplies that run at less than peak performance last longer and don"t overheat. In addition, a power supply loses some of its capacity over time. Also, don"t worry about a higher rated power supply using too much electricity. Components only draw what they need.
21. Describe the LGA2011 processor socket the CPUs it supports, targeted applications, and any special considerations for its implementation.
Second Generation (SandyBridge) Core i7 Extreme,Core i7, Core i5, Core i3,Pentium, and Celeron. 2011 pins in the socket touch 2011 lands on the processor, which uses a flip-chip land grid array (FCLGA).Used in high-end gaming and server computers and might require a liquid cooling system.
A ZIF socket is a zero insertion force socket. When a processor is installed in a socket, extreme care must be taken to protect the socket and the processor against ESD and from damage caused by bending the pins or scratching the socket holes during the installation. So that even force is applied when inserting the processor in the socket, all current processor sockets have one or two levers on the sides of the socket. These sockets are called zero insertion force (ZIF) sockets
A chipset is a set of chips on the motherboard that works closely with the processor to collectively control the memory, buses on the motherboard, and some peripherals. The chipset must be compatible with the processor it serves.
This hub has a fast and slow end, and each end is a separate chip on the motherboard. The fast end of the hub, called the North Bridge, contains the graphics and memory controller, and connects directly to the processor by way of a 64-bit bus, called the Front Side Bus (FSB), system bus, or host bus. The slower end of the hub, called the South Bridge, contains the I/O controller hub (ICH). All I/O (input/output) devices, except video, connect to the hub by using the slower South Bridge.
25. What are the many fine lines on the top and bottom of a motherboard"s surface? What is the purpose of these lines?
These lines, sometimes called traces, are circuits or paths that enable data, instructions, and power to move from component to component on the board. This system of pathways used for communication and the protocol and methods used for transmission are collectively called the bus. The parts of the bus that we are most familiar with are the lines of the bus that are used for data; these lines are called the data bus. A bus can also carry electrical power (to power components on the motherboard), control signals (to coordinate activity), and memory addresses (for one program to tell another program where to find data or instructions).
The system clock or system timer,is dedicated to timing the activities on the motherboard much like a metronome helps a musician with timing. The chipset sends out a continuous pulsating electrical signal on one line of the system bus. This one system clock line, dedicated to carrying the pulse, is read by other components on the motherboard (including the processor, bus slots, memory slots, and so forth) and ensures that all activities are synchronized.
PCI Express (PCIe) uses an altogether different architectural design than conventional PCI and PCI-X; PCIe is not backward compatible with either. PCI Express will ultimately replace both these buses as well as the AGP bus, although it is expected PCI Express will coexist with conventional PCI for some time to come. Whereas PCI uses a 32-bit or 64-bit parallel bus, PCI Express uses a serial bus, which is faster than a parallel bus because it transmits data in packets similar to how an Ethernet network, USB, and FireWire transmit data. A PCIe expansion slot can provide one or more of these serial lanes. Another difference in PCI Express is how it connects to the processor. One or more PCI Express slots used for video cards have a direct link to the North Bridge or to the processor (using Sandy Bridge or Ivy Bridge architecture). PCI Express currently comes in four different slot sizes called PCI Express ×1, ×4, ×8, and ×16.
CMOS RAM is a convenient method to store configuration data. CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) is a method of manufacturing microchips, and CMOS RAM is a small amount of memory stored on the motherboard used to hold motherboard settings. This CMOS RAM retains the data even when the computer is turned off because it is charged by a nearby battery. A program in BIOS, called BIOS setup or CMOS setup, can easily make changes to the settings stored in CMOS RAM.
29. What is the purpose of the motherboard supervisor password and how can it be cleared if it is forgotten?
Most motherboards today allow you to set a supervisor password (to make changes in setup BIOS) or a power-on password (to get access to the system). Know that these passwords are not the same password that can be required by a Windows OS at startup. If both passwords are forgotten, you cannot use the computer. However, jumpers can be set to clear both passwords.
30. What is a device driver and what is the role of motherboard drivers when you update a motherboard or install a new motherboard?
Device drivers are small programs stored on the hard drive and installed in Windows that tell Windows how to communicate with a specific hardware device such as a printer, network port on the motherboard, or scanner. The CD that comes bundled with the motherboard contains a user guide and drivers for its onboard components, and these drivers need to be installed in Windows. You can initially install the drivers from CD, and you can also update the drivers by downloading them from the motherboard manufacturer"s web site.
31. There are nine features that affect performance and compatibility of a processor with the motherboard. List four of them.
Feature 1: Clock speed the processor supports. Feature 2: Processor speed. Feature 3: Socket and chipset the processor can use. Feature 4: Processor architecture (32 bits or 64 bits). Feature 5: Multiprocessing abilities.Feature 6: Memory cache, which is the amount of memory included within the processor package.Feature 7: The memory features on the motherboard that the processor can support.Feature 8: Support for virtualization.Feature 9: Integrated graphics.
Memory on the processor die is called Level 1 cache (L1 cache). Memory in the processor package, but not on the processor die, is called Level 2 cache (L2 cache). Some processors use a third cache farther from the processor core, but still in the processor package, which is called Level 3 cache (L3 cache).
An input/output (I/O) unit manages data and instructions entering and leaving the processor. A control unit manages all activities inside the processor itself. One or more arithmetic logic units (ALUs) do all logical comparisons and calculations inside the processor. Registers, which are small holding areas on the processor chip, work much like RAM does outside the processor to hold counters, data, instructions, and addresses that the ALU is currently processing. Internal memory caches (L1, L2, and possibly L3) hold data and instructions waiting to be processed by the ALU. Buses inside the processor connect components within the processor housing.
The speed at which the processor operates internally is called the processor frequency. For example, if the processor operates at 3.2 GHz internally but the Front Side Bus is operating at 800 MHz, the processor operates at four times the FSB speed. This factor is called the multiplier.
The current AMD processor families are the FX, Phenom, Athlon, and Sempron for desktops and the Athlon, Turion, V Series, Phenom, and Sempron for laptops.
If the cooler has thermal compound preapplied, remove the plastic from the compound. If the cooler does not have thermal compound applied, put a small dot of compound (about the size of a small pea) in the center of the processor. When the cooler is attached and the processor is running, the compound spreads over the surface. Don"t use too much—just enough to later create a thin layer. If you use too much compound, it can slide off the housing and damage the processor or circuits on the motherboard. To get just the right amount, you can buy individual packets that each contain a single application of the thermal compound.
37. After you have installed a processor what should you do if you turn on the system and power comes on but you don"t see any output on the screen and the system does not seem to be going through its normal boot procedure?
If the power comes on (you hear the fan spinning and see lights), but the system fails to work, most likely the processor is not seated solidly in the socket or some power cord has not yet been connected or is not solidly connected. Turn everything off, unplug the power cord, press the power button to drain power, open the case, and recheck your installation.
All new motherboards for desktops sold today use a type of memory module called a DIMM (dual inline memory module). Laptops use a smaller version of a DIMM called a SO-DIMM (small outline DIMM and pronounced "sew-dim"). MicroDIMMs are used on subnotebook computers and are smaller than SO-DIMMs. An older type of module is a RIMM, which is designed by Rambus, Inc. Really old computers used SIMMs (single inline memory module). You"re unlikely to ever see these modules in working computers.
39. What are the three category of DDR memory and how do they compare with regular SDRAM and each other?
Double Data Rate SDRAM (DDR SDRAM, or SDRAM II, or simply DDR) is an improved version of SDRAM. DDR runs twice as fast as regular SDRAM, has one notch, and uses 184 pins. Instead of processing data for each beat of the system clock, as regular SDRAM does, it processes data when the beat rises and again when it falls, doubling the data rate of memory. If a motherboard runs at 200 MHz, DDR memory runs at 400 MHz. Two other improvements over DDR are DDR2 and DDR3. DDR2 is faster and uses less power than DDR. DDR3 is faster and uses less power than DDR2. Both DDR2 and DDR3 use 240 pins, although their notches are not in the same position. They are not compatible, and the different notch positions keep someone from installing a DDR2 or DDR3 DIMM in the wrong memory slot.
40. There are five questions that you should answer before adding memory to a system. List three of those five.
How much RAM do I need and how much is currently installed?How many and what kind of memory modules are currently installed on my motherboard?How many and what kind of modules can I fit on my motherboard?How do I select and purchase the right modules for my upgrade?How do I physically install the new modules?
A solid state drive (SSD), also called a solid state device (SSD), is called solid state because it has no moving parts. In an SSD drive, flash memory is stored on EEPROM (Electronically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory) chips inside the drive housing. The chips contain grids of rows and columns with two transistors at each intersection that hold a zero or one bit. One of these transistors is called a floating gate and accepts the zero or one state according to a logic test called NAND (stands for "Not AND"). Therefore, the memory in an SSD is called NAND flash memory.
A magnetic hard drive has one, two, or more platters, or disks, that stack together and spin in unison inside a sealed metal housing that contains firmware to control reading and writing data to the drive and to communicate with the motherboard. The top and bottom of each disk have a read/write head that moves across the disk surface as all the disks rotate on a spindle. The read/write heads are controlled by an actuator, which moves the read/write heads across the disk surfaces in unison. The disk surfaces are covered with a magnetic medium that can hold data as magnetized spots.
Data is organized on a magnetic hard drive in concentric circles, called tracks. Each track is divided into segments called sectors (also called records). Older hard drives used sectors that contained 512 bytes. Most current hard drives use 4096-byte sectors.
A hard drive uses one of two methods to transfer data between the hard drive and memory: DMA (direct memory access) transfer mode or PIO (Programmed Input/Output) transfer mode. DMA transfers data directly from the drive to memory without involving the CPU. PIO mode involves the CPU and is slower and older than DMA mode.
PATA drives transfer data in parallel fashion whereas SATA uses serial transfers.PATA drives are connected two per cable and SATA drives are connected one per cable.SATA interfaces are much faster than PATA interfaces.SATA can be hot-swapped whereas PATA cannot.
SCSI (pronounced "scuzzy") stands for Small Computer System Interface and is a standard for communication between a subsystem of peripheral devices and the system bus. The SCSI bus can support up to 7 or 15 devices, depending on the SCSI standard. SCSI devices tend to be faster, more expensive, and more difficult to install than similar ATA devices.
When selecting a hard drive, keep in mind that to get the best performance from the system, the system BIOS and the hard drive must support the same standard. If they don"t support the same standard, they revert to the slower standard that both can use, or the drive will not work at all.

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48. What are three of the factors you should consider when purchasing a hard drive that affect performance use, and price?
49. What do you need to do after you install a new hard drive in an existing system that already has a hard drive with Windows installed?
Boot Windows and use the Disk Management utility in Windows to prepare the drive for first use (called partitioning and formatting the drive).
50. What are the four possible configurations for a drive that is installed in a system with four EIDE devices?
Primary IDE channel, master devicePrimary IDE channel, slave deviceSecondary IDE channel, master deviceSecondary IDE channel, slave device




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