A tower instance sits upright and also can be together high as 2 feet and has room for number of drives. Regularly used because that servers, this kind of case is also good for computer users who anticipate upgrading, since tower cases carry out maximum space for functioning inside a computer and also moving components around. A desktop computer case lies flat and sometimes offer double-duty together a monitor stand.

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Both ports are offered to transmit video clip but a DVI port have the right to transmit digital or analog video while the HDMI deserve to only transmit digital video. However, the HDMI harbor can additionally transmit digital audio in ~ the very same time together digital video.
4. Perform three factors you should use matching type factors for the motherboard strength supply, and also case.
Using matching type factors assures girlfriend that: The motherboard fits in the case. The strength supply cords come the motherboard carry out the exactly voltage, and also the connectors enhance the relations on the board. The feet in the motherboard align with the feet in the instance for anchoring the plank to the case. The feet in the case align with ports coming off the motherboard. For some form factors, wires for switches and lights top top the former of the situation match increase with relationships on the motherboard. The feet in the power supply align through holes in the situation for anchoring the power supply to the case.
The PATA interface, additionally called the ide interface, offers a large 40-pin ribbon cable and connector. The standard allows for just two connectors on a motherboard for two data cables. Each concept ribbon cable has actually a connection at the other end for an concept drive and a connection in the middle of the cable because that a second IDE drive. Making use of this interface, a motherboard have the right to accommodate as much as four ide or PATA drives in one system. PATA drives usage a 4-pin strength connector called a Molex strength connector. A Molex connector is shaped so that connects in just one direction.
Electricity can be either AC, alternate current, or DC, straight current. Alternative current (AC) goes earlier and forth, or oscillates, rather than traveling in just one direction. Voltage in the device is constantly alternate from optimistic to negative, which reasons the electrical energy to flow an initial in one direction and then in the other. Direct existing (DC) travels in only one direction and is the kind of existing that most electronic tools require, including computers.
AC travel on a hot line native the power station to a building and returns come the power station on a neutral line. Once the 2 lines with the building and also enter an electrical device, such as a lamp, the maker controls the circulation of electricity between the hot and also neutral lines. If an less complicated path (one with less resistance) is available, the electrical energy follows the path. This can reason a short, a sudden increase in circulation that can also create a sudden increase in temperature—enough to begin a fire and injure both people and equipment. To prevent uncontrolled electrical power in a short, the neutral heat is grounded. Ground connection a line way that the heat is linked directly to the earth, for this reason that, in the occasion of a short, the electricity flows into the earth and not earlier to the strength station.
The power cord is frayed or otherwise damaged in any way. Water or other liquid is top top the floor about the an equipment or flood on it. The machine has to be exposed come excess moisture.The maker has to be dropped or you notice physical damage. You odor a solid electronics odor. The power supply or fans room making a whining noise. You an alert smoke coming from the computer instance or the situation feels person that is abnormal warm.
A soil bracelet, additionally called an ESD strap, antistatic wrist strap, or ESD bracelet, is a strap friend wear roughly your wrist. The strap has actually a cord attached through an alligator clip top top the end. Attach the clip to the computer instance you"re working on. Any static electricity between you and the instance is now discharged. Therefore, together you work-related inside the case, you will certainly not damages the materials with static electricity. The bracelet additionally contains a resistor that avoids electricity from harming you.
Rule 1: once passing a circuit board, storage module, or various other sensitive component to an additional person, soil yourself and also then touch the various other person prior to you pass the component.Rule 2: Leave materials inside your protective bags until you are ready to use them.Rule 3: work-related on hard floors, no carpet, or use antistatic spray top top the carpets.Rule 4: Don"t occupational on a computer system if you or the computer have just come in indigenous the cold because there is an ext danger of ESD as soon as the setting is cold and also dry.Rule 5: as soon as unpacking hardware or software, eliminate the pack tape and cellophane indigenous the work area as soon as possible because this materials lure ESD.Rule 6: Keep components away from her hair and clothing.
Make notes as you job-related so the you deserve to backtrack later if necessary. Remove loose jewelry that can get captured in cables and components as you work. To stay organized and not lose little parts, store screws and spacers orderly and in one place, such together a cup or tray. Don"t stack boards on peak of every other. When taking care of motherboards, cards, or drives, don"t touch the chips top top the device. Hold growth cards by the edges. To protect a microchip, don"t touch it through a magnetized screwdriver. Never ever before touch the inside of a computer system that is turned on. Never remove the sheathe or placed your hands inside a monitor or strength supply. Together you work, remember to watch the end for sharp edges top top computer cases that can reduced you. In a great environment, after ~ you have reassembled everything, have your instructor examine your work prior to you placed the cover ago on and power up.
13. What need to you do after girlfriend unplug the computer system to be certain the strength supply is totally drained?
Press and hold under the power button for a moment.
14. What need to you do to dissipate any charge in between you and the computer?
Clip her ground bracelet come the next of the computer case.
15. What should you do before disconnecting the wires top from the former of the computer situation to the motherboard if you don"t have actually the motherboard manual handy?
Be very careful to diagram how these wires attach because lock are never ever labeled well on a motherboard.
A motherboard is set up so that the bottom of the plank does not touch the case. If the well traces or present on the bottom of the board were come touch the case, a brief would result when the device is running. To save the plank from poignant the case, spacers or standoffs may be used.
17. List and also describe three front panel connectors friend will likely see going native the front dashboard to the motherboard.
Power SW. Controls power to the motherboard; have to be linked for the pc to strength up HDD LED. Controls the drive task light on the front panel the lights up when any SATA or IDE machine is in usage (HDD stands for hard disk drive; LED represents light-emitting diode) strength LED+. Confident LED controls the power light and also indicates that power is onPower LED-. An unfavorable LED controls the strength light; the two hopeful and an unfavorable leads suggest that strength is ~ above Reset SW. Switch supplied to reboot the computer
The cooler sits on height of the processor and also consists that a fan and a warm sink. A warm sink supplies fins that draw heat far from the processor. The fan deserve to then blow the heat away.
Using liquid cooling, a small pump sits inside the computer system case, and also tubes move liquid about components and then away from them come a location where fans have the right to cool the liquid, comparable to just how a car radiator works.
20. What room two significant points you must keep in mind when selecting the correct wattage volume for a strength supply?
Video cards draw the most power. Video clip cards attract the many power in a system, and they draw from the +12 V output. If her system has actually a video clip card, pay particular attention to the +12 V rating. The trend nowadays is for the motherboard to carry out the video clip components and video clip port, therefore reducing the as whole wattage demands for a system. The strength supply should be rated around 30 percent higher than expected needs. Power offers that operation at less than top performance last longer and don"t overheat. In addition, a strength supply loses some of its volume over time. Also, don"t worry around a higher rated power supply using too much electricity. Contents only attract what lock need.
21. Define the LGA2011 processor socket the CPUs it supports, target applications, and also any special considerations for its implementation.
Second Generation (SandyBridge) core i7 Extreme,Core i7, main point i5, core i3,Pentium, and Celeron. 2011 pins in the socket touch 2011 soil on the processor, which uses a flip-chip floor grid array (FCLGA).Used in high-end gaming and also server computers and might call for a fluid cooling system.
A ZIF socket is a zero insertion force socket. Once a processor is mounted in a socket, extreme care must it is in taken to safeguard the socket and the processor versus ESD and from damages caused through bending the pins or scratching the socket holes throughout the installation. Therefore that even force is applied when inserting the processor in the socket, all existing processor sockets have actually one or two levers ~ above the sides of the socket. This sockets are dubbed zero insertion force (ZIF) sockets
A chipset is a set of chips top top the motherboard that works carefully with the processor to jointly control the memory, buses top top the motherboard, and also some peripherals. The chipset have to be compatible through the processor that serves.
This hub has a fast and also slow end, and each finish is a separate chip on the motherboard. The fast finish of the hub, called the phibìc Bridge, contains the graphics and memory controller, and connects straight to the processor by method of a 64-bit bus, referred to as the Front side Bus (FSB), system bus, or host bus. The slower end of the hub, dubbed the south Bridge, consists of the I/O controller hub (ICH). All I/O (input/output) devices, other than video, connect to the hub by using the slower south Bridge.
25. What are the many fine currently on the top and bottom that a motherboard"s surface? What is the objective of these lines?
These lines, sometimes called traces, are circuits or paths that allow data, instructions, and power to move from ingredient to ingredient on the board. This mechanism of pathways supplied for communication and the protocol and methods provided for infection are jointly called the bus. The components of the bus the we space most acquainted with space the lines of the bus that are provided for data; this lines are referred to as the data bus. A bus can also carry electrical power (to power materials on the motherboard), regulate signals (to name: coordinates activity), and memory addresses (for one regimen to tell another program whereby to find data or instructions).
The mechanism clock or system timer,is dedicated to time the activities on the motherboard lot like a metronome help a musician through timing. The chipset sends out a continuous pulsating electrical signal top top one heat of the mechanism bus. This one system clock line, specialized to moving the pulse, is review by other contents on the motherboard (including the processor, bus slots, memory slots, and also so forth) and ensures that all tasks are synchronized.
PCI to express (PCIe) offers an altogether different architectural design than conventional PCI and PCI-X; PCIe is no backward compatible with either. PCI to express will ultimately replace both this buses as well as the AGP bus, although it is expected PCI Express will certainly coexist v conventional PCI for part time to come. Vice versa, PCI offers a 32-bit or 64-bit parallel bus, PCI Express offers a serial bus, which is much faster than a parallel bus because it transmits data in packets similar to how an Ethernet network, USB, and also FireWire transmit data. A PCIe growth slot can provide one or more of these serial lanes. Another difference in PCI to express is exactly how it connects to the processor. One or an ext PCI to express slots provided for video clip cards have a direct connect to the North leg or come the processor (using Sandy bridge or Ivy bridge architecture). PCI Express right now comes in four various slot sizes dubbed PCI to express ×1, ×4, ×8, and also ×16.
CMOS lamb is a convenient an approach to keep configuration data. CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) is a method of production microchips, and also CMOS ram is a small amount of storage stored ~ above the motherboard offered to organize motherboard settings. This CMOS ram retains the data even when the computer is rotate off because it is fee by a surrounding battery. A regime in BIOS, dubbed BIOS setup or CMOS setup, can conveniently make transforms to the setups stored in CMOS RAM.
29. What is the objective of the motherboard supervisor password and how deserve to it be cleared if it is forgotten?
Most motherboards today permit you to set a at sight password (to make changes in setup BIOS) or a power-on password (to get access to the system). Recognize that this passwords are not the exact same password that have the right to be required by a windows OS in ~ startup. If both passwords room forgotten, girlfriend cannot usage the computer. However, jumpers have the right to be set to clear both passwords.
30. What is a machine driver and what is the function of motherboard motorists when you update a motherboard or install a brand-new motherboard?
Device chauffeurs are little programs stored on the hard drive and also installed in windows that tell Windows how to communicate with a specific hardware maker such as a printer, network harbor on the motherboard, or scanner. The CD the comes bundled through the motherboard has a user guide and drivers because that its onboard components, and these motorists need to be set up in Windows. You can initially install the vehicle drivers from CD, and also you can also update the motorists by downloading and install them indigenous the motherboard manufacturer"s net site.
31. There are nine attributes that influence performance and also compatibility the a processor through the motherboard. List 4 of them.
Feature 1: Clock speed the processor supports. Function 2: Processor speed. Attribute 3: Socket and chipset the processor deserve to use. Feature 4: Processor style (32 bits or 64 bits). Attribute 5: Multiprocessing abilities.Feature 6: storage cache, i beg your pardon is the quantity of memory had within the processor package.Feature 7: The memory features on the motherboard the the processor deserve to support.Feature 8: support for virtualization.Feature 9: incorporated graphics.
Memory on the processor dice is referred to as Level 1 cache (L1 cache). Memory in the processor package, yet not ~ above the processor die, is dubbed Level 2 cache (L2 cache). Some processors use a third cache farther indigenous the processor core, but still in the processor package, which is called Level 3 cache (L3 cache).
An input/output (I/O) unit manages data and instructions entering and leaving the processor. A manage unit manages all tasks inside the processor itself. One or more arithmetic logic units (ALUs) do all reasonable comparisons and also calculations within the processor. Registers, i beg your pardon are little holding areas on the processor chip, work much like ram does outside the processor to hold counters, data, instructions, and addresses that the ALU is currently processing. Interior memory caches (L1, L2, and also possibly L3) organize data and also instructions waiting to be handle by the ALU. Buses inside the processor connect components in ~ the processor housing.
The speed at i beg your pardon the processor operates within is dubbed the processor frequency. Because that example, if the processor operates in ~ 3.2 GHz internally however the Front next Bus is operating at 800 MHz, the processor operates at 4 times the FSB speed. This factor is dubbed the multiplier.
The present AMD processor families are the FX, Phenom, Athlon, and also Sempron because that desktops and also the Athlon, Turion, V Series, Phenom, and also Sempron for laptops.
If the cooler has thermal link preapplied, eliminate the plastic from the compound. If the cooler does not have thermal link applied, put a tiny dot of link (about the size of a small pea) in the facility of the processor. Once the cooler is attached and the processor is running, the link spreads over the surface. Don"t use also much—just sufficient to later develop a thin layer. If you usage too lot compound, it can slide turn off the housing and damage the processor or circuits top top the motherboard. To get just the appropriate amount, you can buy separation, personal, instance packets that each save a single application the the thermal compound.
37. After you have installed a processor what need to you do if you turn on the system and power come on however you don"t see any output top top the screen and the mechanism does not seem to be going with its regular boot procedure?
If the power comes on (you hear the pan spinning and see lights), but the system fails to work, most most likely the processor is no seated solidly in the socket or part power cord has actually not however been connected or is no solidly connected. Turn everything off, unplug the strength cord, press the power button to drainpipe power, open up the case, and also recheck her installation.
All new motherboards because that desktops sold today usage a type of storage module dubbed a DIMM (dual inline storage module). Laptop computers use a smaller sized version of a DIMM dubbed a SO-DIMM (small synopsis DIMM and pronounced "sew-dim"). MicroDIMMs are supplied on subnotebook computers and are smaller than SO-DIMMs. An older kind of module is a RIMM, i m sorry is designed by Rambus, Inc. Really old computer systems used SIMMs (single inline storage module). You"re i can not qualify to ever see these modules in working computers.
39. What room the three classification of DDR memory and how perform they to compare with consistent SDRAM and also each other?
Double Data price SDRAM (DDR SDRAM, or SDRAM II, or just DDR) is an improved version that SDRAM. DDR runs double as quick as constant SDRAM, has one notch, and also uses 184 pins. Rather of handling data for each to win of the device clock, as continual SDRAM does, it processes data once the to win rises and also again when it falls, copy the data price of memory. If a motherboard runs at 200 MHz, DDR memory runs in ~ 400 MHz. 2 other enhancements over DDR space DDR2 and DDR3. DDR2 is faster and uses much less power 보다 DDR. DDR3 is faster and also uses less power 보다 DDR2. Both DDR2 and DDR3 usage 240 pins, although their notches space not in the exact same position. They are not compatible, and the various notch positions save someone from installation a DDR2 or DDR3 DIMM in the wrong storage slot.
40. Over there are 5 questions that you need to answer before adding memory come a system. List three of those five.
How much RAM perform I need and also how lot is at this time installed?How many and what kind of memory modules are currently installed on my motherboard?How many and also what type of modules have the right to I right on mine motherboard?How do I select and also purchase the appropriate modules because that my upgrade?How carry out I physically download the brand-new modules?
A heavy state drive (SSD), additionally called a heavy state device (SSD), is called solid state since it has no relocating parts. In one SSD drive, flash memory is stored on EEPROM (Electronically Erasable Programmable Read only Memory) chips within the drive housing. The chips save on computer grids of rows and columns with two transistors at each intersection that organize a zero or one bit. Among these transistors is dubbed a floating gate and accepts the zero or one state according to a reasonable test called NAND (stands for "Not AND"). Therefore, the storage in one SSD is called NAND flash memory.
A magnetic hard drive has actually one, two, or more platters, or disks, that stack together and spin in unison inside a sealed metal housing that has firmware to control reading and writing data to the drive and also to interact with the motherboard. The top and also bottom of each disk have actually a read/write head that moves throughout the disk surface as all the disks revolve on a spindle. The read/write heads are controlled by an actuator, which move the read/write heads throughout the disk surface in unison. The disk surfaces are covered through a magnetic tool that deserve to hold data together magnetized spots.
Data is arranged on a magnetic tough drive in concentric circles, called tracks. Each track is divided into segments called sectors (also dubbed records). Older tough drives offered sectors that consisted of 512 bytes. Most present hard drives usage 4096-byte sectors.
A hard drive provides one that two techniques to transfer data between the difficult drive and memory: DMA (direct storage access) transfer mode or PIO (Programmed Input/Output) move mode. DMA move data straight from the drive to storage without including the CPU. PIO mode requires the CPU and also is slower and also older than DMA mode.
PATA drives deliver data in parallel fashion vice versa, SATA uses serial transfers.PATA drives are connected two per cable and also SATA cd driver are linked one per cable.SATA interfaces are much quicker than PATA interfaces.SATA have the right to be hot-swapped conversely, PATA cannot.
SCSI (pronounced "scuzzy") stands for small Computer device Interface and also is a standard for communication in between a subsystem of peripheral devices and also the mechanism bus. The SCSI bus can support as much as 7 or 15 devices, relying on the SCSI standard. SCSI devices tend to it is in faster, much more expensive, and more an overwhelming to download than comparable ATA devices.
When selecting a hard drive, save in mind the to acquire the finest performance native the system, the system BIOS and the difficult drive must support the same standard. If lock don"t assistance the same standard, lock revert come the slower conventional that both deserve to use, or the drive will not work at all.

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48. What space three of the determinants you should think about when to buy a hard drive that influence performance use, and also price?
49. What execute you should do ~ you download a new hard drive in one existing device that already has a hard drive with Windows installed?
Boot Windows and use the Disk management utility in home windows to prepare the journey for very first use (called partitioning and also formatting the drive).
50. What are the four feasible configurations because that a drive that is set up in a mechanism with four EIDE devices?
Primary concept channel, grasp devicePrimary ide channel, servant deviceSecondary ide channel, grasp deviceSecondary principle channel, slave device




Fluid Mechanics Fundamentals and also Applications3rd EditionJohn Cimbala, Yunus A. Cengel
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