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As at an early stage as September 1861, the CSA began issuing nationwide currency, promise to salary the bearer the confront amount — six months after the ratification the a peace treaty.

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Within work of the fall of fort Sumter, four much more states joined the Confederacy: Virginia, north Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas. The battle lines were now drawn.

On paper, the Union outweighed the Confederacy in almost every way. Practically 21 million human being lived in 23 northern states. The South declared just 9 million people — including 3.5 million servants — in 11 confederate states. Despite the North"s greater population, however, the South had an army practically equal in size throughout the first year the the war.

The North had actually an huge industrial benefit as well. In ~ the beginning of the war, the Confederacy had actually only one-ninth the industrial capacity of the Union. However that statistic to be misleading. In 1860, the North made 97 percent the the country"s firearms, 96 percent the its rail locomotives, 94 percent the its cloth, 93 percent that its pig iron, and also over 90 percent that its boots and shoes. The North had actually twice the thickness of railroads every square mile. There to be not also one rifleworks in the entire South.


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The southern was in ~ a severe disadvantage as soon as it concerned manufacturing, yet the Confederacy managed to save its weapons firing by creating ammunition from melted-down bells native churches and also town squares.

All that the major ingredients of gunpowder to be imported. Due to the fact that the North controlled the navy, the seas were in the hand of the Union. A blockade could suffocate the South. Still, the Confederacy was not without resources and also willpower.

The South might produce all the food the needed, though transporting it come soldiers and civilians to be a significant problem. The South additionally had a an excellent nucleus the trained officers. Seven of the eight military colleges in the nation were in the South.

The South likewise proved come be very resourceful. Through the finish of the war, it had created armories and also foundries in number of states. Lock built huge gunpowder mills and melted down countless church and plantation bells for bronze to build cannon.

The South"s greatest strength put in the reality that it was fighting on the protective in its very own territory. Acquainted with the landscape, Southerners could harass northern invaders.

The military and also political goals of the Union were lot more daunting to accomplish. The Union had to invade, conquer, and occupy the South. It had to ruin the South"s capacity and also will to withstand — a formidable an obstacle in any type of war.


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"We had actually the poorest commissary arrangements, and also all I could get because that my men was salt and hard crackers. I made the convalescents shoot squirrels, soil hogs, pheasants, and also turkeys with which to do soup for the men." -from the memoirs the Archibald Atkinson Jr., a Confederate surgeon

Southerners took pleasure in the initial benefit of morale: The southern was fighting to maintain its method of life, conversely, the North was fighting to maintain a union. Slavery did not end up being a moral cause of the Union initiative until Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863.

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When the battle began, many key questions to be still unanswered. What if the slave says of Maryland, Kentucky, Missouri, and also Delaware had joined the Confederacy? What if britain or France had come to the aid of the South? What if a couple of decisive beforehand Confederate victories had actually turned north public opinion against the war?

Indeed, the phibìc looked much far better on paper. Yet many components undetermined at the outbreak that war can have tilted the balance sheet towards a different outcome.