addendA number included to one or an ext numbers to kind a sum.
addition property of 0The sum of any number and also 0 is equal to that number. The number 0 is often dubbed the additive identity.

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amountIn a percent problem, the part of the whole equivalent to the percent.
associative law of additionFor three or more numbers, the sum is the very same regardless of how you team the numbers. For example, (6 + 2) + 1 = 6 + (2 + 1).
associative regulation of multiplication

For three or an ext numbers, the product is the same regardless of how you group the numbers. For example, 3 • (5 • 7) = 3 • (5 • 7).

In a percent problem, the basic represents just how much should be considered 100% (the whole); in exponents, the base is the worth that is elevated to a power when a number is written in exponential notation. In the example of 53, 5 is the base.

capacityThe lot of liquid (or various other pourable substance) that an object can organize when it"s full.

A measure up of temperature generally used in nations that use the metric system. Top top the Celsius scale, water freezes at 0° C and also boils at 100° C.

common denominatorA number the is a many of every one of the denominators in a team of fractions.
commutative law of additionTwo numbers can be included in any kind of order without changing the sum. Because that example, 6 + 4 = 4 + 6.
commutative law of multiplication

Two numbers have the right to be multiplied in any type of order without an altering the product. Because that example, 8 • 9 = 9 • 8.

Raising a number come a power of 3. 23 is review “2 to the third power” or “2 cubed,” and means use 2 as a variable three times in the multiplication. 23 = 2 • 2 • 2 = 8.

cupA unit of volume equal to 8 fluid ounces.
decimal fractionsA portion written as a decimal point and digits to the right of the decimal point
decimal numberDecimal numbers room numbers whose ar value is based on 10s, including totality numbers and decimal fractions, which have actually decimal points and digits come the best of the decimal point. The number 18, 4.12 and also 0.008 space all decimal numbers.
denominatorThe bottom variety of a fraction that tells how many equal parts are in the whole.
differenceThe quantity that outcomes from subtracting one number from another, or from subtracting the subtrahend from the minuend.
digitOne the the icons 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9.
distributeTo rewrite the product of the number and a sum or difference using the distributive property.
distributive property of multiplication over additionThe product the a number and a sum is the very same as the sum of the product of the number and each that the addends consisting of the sum. For example, 3(4 + 2) = 3(4) + 3(2).
distributive home of multiplication end subtractionThe product the a number and a distinction is the very same as the difference of the product of the number and also each of the numbers being subtracted. Because that example, 8(10 – 2) = 8(10) – 8(2).
divisibility testA rule that tells quickly whether dividing a number by one more number have the right to be excellent without leaving a remainder.

Can be divided by a number there is no leaving a remainder. For example, 20 is divisible through 4 due to the fact that 20 ÷ 4 = 5 (no remainder).

The number the is being split into the dividend in a department problem. In the difficulty 8 ÷ 2 = 4, 2 is the divisor.

equationA mathematical sentence that mirrors that 2 expressions room equal.
equivalent fractionsTwo or an ext fractions that name the same component of the whole.
estimateAn answer come a problem that is close to the precise number, yet not have to exact.
even numberA entirety number that is divisible by 2.
expanded form

A method to compose a number as a sum of the value of its digits. For example, thirty-two is written in expanded type as 30 + 2, or 3 tens + 2 ones, or (3 • 10) + (2 • 1).

The number that indicates how plenty of times the basic is supplied as a factor. In the example of 53, 3 is the exponent and method that 5 is provided three times together a factor: 5 • 5 • 5.

A notation that represents repeated multiplication using a base and also an exponent. Because that example, 24 is notation that means 2 • 2 • 2 • 2. This notation tells you the 2 is provided as a factor 4 times. 24 = 16. (Also called exponential form.)


A math phrase. For example, 8 • 2 + 3 is an expression. It represents the quantity 19.


A number that is multiplied by an additional number or numbers to acquire a product. For example, in the equation 4 • 5 = 20, 4 and 5 are factors.

factor label methodOne technique of converting a measurement indigenous one unit of measure to an additional unit that measurement. In this method, you main point the original measurement through unit fountain containing different units of measure up to obtain the brand-new unit of measurement.
factor pair

A pair that numbers who product is a offered number. Because that example, 2 and also 15 room a variable pair of 30 because 2 •15 = 30. Both 2 and also 15 are factors of 30.

factor treeA chart showing how a number have the right to be written as factors, and those determinants written as a product that factors, and also so top top until only prime numbers room used.

A measure of temperature frequently used in the joined States. Top top the Fahrenheit scale, water freezes at 32° F and also boils at 212° F.

A unit of capacity equal to

 of a cup. One fluid ounce the water in ~ 62°F weighs about one ounce.

footA unit because that measuring size in the U.S. Customary measurement system. 1 foot = 12 inches
fractionAn expression offered to refer to a component of a whole.
gallonA unit equal to 4 quarts, or 128 fluid ounces.
gramThe base unit of massive in the Metric system.
grouping symbolsSymbols such together parentheses, braces, brackets, and portion bars that show the numbers to be grouped together.
improper fractionA fraction in i m sorry the molecule is same to or better than the denominator.
inchA unit because that measuring length in the U.S. Customary measure up system. 1 foot = 12 inches
inequalityA mathematical sentence that compares 2 numbers that room not equal.
inverse operationA mathematical operation that deserve to reverse or “undo” one more operation. Enhancement and subtraction are inverse operations. Multiplication and department are station operations.
least usual denominator(LCD) The least, or smallest, number the is a many of every the platform in a group of fractions.
least usual multiple(LCM) The least, or smallest, number the is a lot of of 2 or an ext numbers.
lengthThe street from one finish to the other or the distance from one allude to another.
like denominatorsDenominators that space the same.
literThe basic unit that volume in the Metric system.
lowest termsA fraction is in lowest terms if the numerator and denominator have actually no common factors other than 1.
measurementThe usage of standard units to discover out the size or amount of items such as length, width, height, mass, weight, volume, temperature or time.
meterThe base unit of length in the Metric system.
metric systemA commonly used mechanism of measurement that is based on the decimal system and multiples of 10.
mileA unit for measuring size in the U.S. Customary measurement system. 1 mile = 5,280 feet or 1,760 yards.
minuendThe number indigenous which another number is subtracted.
mixed number

An expression in which a totality number is combined with a ideal fraction. For instance 5


is a combined number.

multipleAny number that has a offered number as a factor. Because that example, 4, 8, 16, and 200 space multiples that 4, because 4 is a element of every of these numbers.
multiplication residential or commercial property of 1The product of any kind of number and also 1 is same to that number. The number 1 is often called the multiplicative identity.
natural numberThe number 1, 2, 3, 4 and also so on. Also called counting numbers.
numeratorThe top variety of a portion that speak how numerous parts of a whole are gift represented.
operationA mathematics process; the four an easy operations are addition, subtraction, multiplication, and also division.
order the operationsThe rule that recognize the succession of calculations in one expression with an ext than one type of computation.
ounceA unit because that measuring weight in the U.S. Customary measure system. 16 ounces = 1 pound.
percentA ratio that compare a number to 100. “Per cent” method “per 100,” or “how countless out that 100.”
perfect square

A whole number that have the right to be expressed as a totality number increased to a power of 2. Because that example, 25 is a perfect square due to the fact that 25 = 5 • 5 = 52.

perimeterThe distance approximately a two-dimensional shape.
periodEach group of 3 digits in a number be separate by a comma.
pintA unit of volume equal to 16 fluid ounces, or 2 cups.
place valueThe value of a digit based on its position within a number.
place-value chartA graph that mirrors the value of every digit in a number.
polygonA closed aircraft figure bounded by three or an ext line segments.
poundA unit for measuring weight in the U.S. Customary measure system. 16 ounces = 1 pound.
power that 10

Any entirety number that deserve to be stood for by 10x. The very first four powers of 10 room 1, 10, 100, and 1000.

prefixA short set of letter that represent the size of measurement systems in the Metric System. Metric prefixes incorporate centi-, milli-, kilo-, and hecto-.
prime factorizationA number created as the product the its prime factors.
prime numberA natural number with specifically two factors: 1 and the number itself.
proper fractionA fraction in i beg your pardon the molecule is much less than the denominator.
proportionAn equation that states that two ratios are equal.
quartA unit of capacity equal to 32 fluid ounces, or 4 cups.

The symbol provided for square root and other roots. It looks like

 and the number is created under it. Because that example, the square root of ripe is written through the radical sign:

When a base has an exponent, it have the right to be said that the base is “raised to the power” that the exponent. For example, 35 is review as “3 raised to the 5th power.”

rateA proportion that compares quantities measured in different units. Because that example, a speed compares the street traveled come a size of time.
ratioA to compare of two numbers by division. Because that example, the proportion of 15 guys in a class to 14 girl in the same course is 15:14.

A number that when multiplied through a offered number gives a product that 1. Because that example,

 are reciprocals of each other.

roundingFinding a number it is close come a given number, yet is easier to think about.
simplest formA fraction is in simplest kind if the numerator and also denominator have actually no usual factors various other than 1.
square root

A value that can be multiplied by itself to offer the original number. For instance if the initial number is 9, climate 3 is that square root since 3 multiplied by chin (32, pronounce "3 squared") equates to 9. The symbol supplied for a square root is referred to as a radical sign and goes on top of the number. The square root of 9 is written as


Multiplying a number through itself, or raising the number come a power of 2. 82 have the right to be check out as “8 to the 2nd power,” “8 come a power of 2,” or “8 squared.”

standard formA method to compose a number making use of digits. For example, thirty-two is created in standard type as 32.
subtrahendThe number the is subtracted from an additional number.
sumThe result when two or more numbers space added; the amount that results from addition.
tonA unit because that measuring the weight of more heavier items in the U.S. Customary measure system. 1 ton = 2,000 pounds.
trailing zeroA placeholder 0 the occurs ~ the last non-0 number in a decimal number. In the number 22.0900, the 0s in the thousandths and also ten-thousandths locations are trailing zeros.
U.S. Customary measurement systemThe most usual system the measurement offered in the joined States. It is based upon English measurement systems of the 18th century.
unit equivalentsStatements the equivalence between measurement systems within a system or in compare to another system of units. For example 1 foot = 12 customs or 1 customs = 2.54 centimeters space both examples of unit equivalents.
unit fractions

A portion where the numerator and denominator space equal amounts, as in

. Unit fractions offer to help with conversions in the element Label method.

unit of measurementA conventional amount or quantity. Because that example, an inch is a unit the measurement.
unit priceA rate in which the amount is expressed together one unit. If 12 candy bars cost $24, the unit price is $2 every 1 candy bar.
unit rateA rate in which the 2nd quantity is one unit. If a bird flaps its wings 240 times in 3 minutes, the unit rate of wing flapping is 80 flaps per 1 minute.
unlike denominators

Denominators the are different from every other. For example the fountain

 have different denominators, one denominator being 4 and the various other denominator gift 8.

weightA mathematical summary of exactly how heavy things is.

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whole numberAny the the number 0, 1, 2, 3, and also so on.
yardA unit for measuring size in the U.S. Customary measure system. 1 garden = 3 feet or 36 inches.