1. Gerunds

A linguistic is a word created from a verb yet functioning together a different component ofspeech.

You are watching: A gerund consists of to plus the present form of the verb.

A gerund is a verbal ending in -ing that functions as a noun.

Like an ordinary single-word noun, a gerund may be offered as a














In the example below, thegerund phrase renames the subject, this.


NOTE: execute not confused gerunds with verbs (predicates) in the progressivetense.





even though is cooking and also wasscratching end in -ing, they room not gerunds because they areused as predicate verbs, no as nouns.

2. Participles

A verbal is a word created from a verb however functioning as a different component ofspeech.

A participle is a linguistic that attributes as an adjective.

Two kinds of participles:

A. Present participles, constantly ending in -ing,are developed from the type of a verb provided with the verb to be ( am,is, are, was, were, been) as an auxiliary verb (progressive tense).

Removing the assistant verb and also using the -ing type of the main verb together an adjective to produce a current participle.


B. Past participles, usually ending in-ed or -en, are developed from the type of a verb usedwith the verb to be as an assistant verb (passive voice).


Removing the auxiliary verb and also using the -en type of the key verb together an adjective produces a past participle.


Past participles may also be part of a participial phrase.


Participles and participial phrases need to be placed near the noun they modify. They may either head or follow a noun.


For punctuation rules provided with participles and also participial phrases, monitor this link.

3. Infinitives

A linguistic is a word formed from a verb however functioning together a different component ofspeech.

An infinitive is a verbal created by place to in frontof the straightforward present type of a verb.


toswim tothink toread tobe tocut to turn

Infinitives may role as adjectives, adverbs, or nouns.

A. Adjectival infinitives

Just prefer a single-word adjective, an infinitive used as an adjective alwaysdescribes a noun.

An adjectival infinitive always follows the noun that describes.



Like gerunds and participles, infinitives mayincorporate various other words as component of their phrase.



B. Adverb infinitives

Just favor a single-word adverb, one infinitive used as one adverb alwaysdescribes a verb.

An adverb infinitive normally occurs in ~ the start or in ~ the end of asentence and does not should be close to the verb it describes.

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EXAMPLE: adverb infinitive in ~ sentence start


EXAMPLE: adverbial infinitive at sentence end


HINT: girlfriend can always identify an adverbial infinitive byinserting the test words in stimulate in former of

infinitive. If the words in order do sense, the infinitiveis adverbial.



1. Use a comma after ~ the adverbial infinitive whenit beginning a sentence.

2. Execute not separate the adverbial infinitive native therest that the sentence if the infinitive ends the