1. Gerunds

A linguistic is a word created from a verb yet functioning together a different component ofspeech.

You are watching: A gerund consists of to plus the present form of the verb.

A gerund is a verbal ending in -ing that functions as a noun.

Like an ordinary single-word noun, a gerund may be offered as a

SUBJECT

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DIRECT OBJECT

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RETAINED OBJECT

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spatu COMPLEMENT

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OBJECT the PREPOSITION

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APPOSITIVE

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DELAYED APPOSITIVE

In the example below, thegerund phrase renames the subject, this.

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NOTE: execute not confused gerunds with verbs (predicates) in the progressivetense.

GERUND

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PREDICATE VERB

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even though is cooking and also wasscratching end in -ing, they room not gerunds because they areused as predicate verbs, no as nouns.

2. Participles

A verbal is a word created from a verb however functioning as a different component ofspeech.

A participle is a linguistic that attributes as an adjective.

Two kinds of participles:

A. Present participles, constantly ending in -ing,are developed from the type of a verb provided with the verb to be ( am,is, are, was, were, been) as an auxiliary verb (progressive tense).

Removing the assistant verb and also using the -ing type of the main verb together an adjective to produce a current participle.

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B. Past participles, usually ending in-ed or -en, are developed from the type of a verb usedwith the verb to be as an assistant verb (passive voice).

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Removing the auxiliary verb and also using the -en type of the key verb together an adjective produces a past participle.

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Past participles may also be part of a participial phrase.

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Participles and participial phrases need to be placed near the noun they modify. They may either head or follow a noun.

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For punctuation rules provided with participles and also participial phrases, monitor this link.

3. Infinitives

A linguistic is a word formed from a verb however functioning together a different component ofspeech.

An infinitive is a verbal created by place to in frontof the straightforward present type of a verb.

Examples:

toswim tothink toread tobe tocut to turn

Infinitives may role as adjectives, adverbs, or nouns.

A. Adjectival infinitives

Just prefer a single-word adjective, an infinitive used as an adjective alwaysdescribes a noun.

An adjectival infinitive always follows the noun that describes.

EXAMPLE

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Like gerunds and participles, infinitives mayincorporate various other words as component of their phrase.

EXAMPLE

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B. Adverb infinitives

Just favor a single-word adverb, one infinitive used as one adverb alwaysdescribes a verb.

An adverb infinitive normally occurs in ~ the start or in ~ the end of asentence and does not should be close to the verb it describes.

See more: How Far Is 150 Meters In Miles Is 150 Meters, Convert 150 Meters To Miles

EXAMPLE: adverb infinitive in ~ sentence start

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EXAMPLE: adverbial infinitive at sentence end

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HINT: girlfriend can always identify an adverbial infinitive byinserting the test words in stimulate in former of

infinitive. If the words in order do sense, the infinitiveis adverbial.

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PUNCTUATION NOTE:

1. Use a comma after ~ the adverbial infinitive whenit beginning a sentence.

2. Execute not separate the adverbial infinitive native therest that the sentence if the infinitive ends the