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You are watching: A driver should be extra alert for motorcyclists, bicycles, and pedestrians because:




Note: exercise quizzes are accessible only because that those sections of the hands-on covering rule of the road (Chapters 4 through 11 and also Road Signs).


As a driver, you must find out to safely re-publishing the roadway with a selection of various other users. This include, however are not limited to: large vehicles, motorcycles, mopeds, pedestrians, bicyclists, in-line skaters, roller skaters, skateboarders, slow relocating vehicles, non-motorized scooters and also horseback riders. You have to know just how to safely regulate the difficulties they can present and also understand the one-of-a-kind rules they should obey.



Pedestrians and skateboarders room at high risk in traffic. The law requires girlfriend to it is in extra careful to avoid a collision with them.

Look the end for youngsters near schools, bus stops, playgrounds, parks and ice cream trucks.

When you back up your car or van look v your back window for pedestrians. Do no rely only on winter when youngsters are near. Before you ago into a driveway, or the end of it, acquire out that the vehicle and also check behind your vehicle.

Pedestrians are claimed to to walk on the side of the road and also face the website traffic in the roadway nearest them. As soon as when you do a best turn watch for pedestrians on her right. When you make a left turn, watch because that pedestrians top top the other side that the road on her left.

Pedestrians and skateboarders who are legally crossing the roadway or street at significant or there was no sign crossings, favor an intersection, always have the right-of-way. You have to decrease your speed or, if necessary, involved a finish stop. The elderly and also persons v disabilities deserve to require added time to complete their crossings.

A one-of-a-kind right-of-way law allows blind pedestrians come go throughout the road with a guide dog or a white or steel cane. Girlfriend must constantly give castle the right-of-way as soon as they room trying to cross at a marked or unmarked crosswalk, even if the website traffic signals or other right-of-way rules space not in your favor.

Remember to move your eyes together you drive. Look come either side every couple of seconds to assist you point out pedestrians close to or approaching the roadway.

The regulation requires pedestrians and also skateboarders to:

Obey traffic and pedestrian signals, web traffic officers and also official signs.Use the sidewalk when easily accessible or confront traffic together they walk, as far from the close to traffic lane as possible.Never stand in the roadway to hitchhike or conduct service with motorists.



Bicyclists and in-line skaters can share the road and travel in the same direction together motor vehicles. They are frequently hard to see in traffic and also have no security from a web traffic crash. Check your "blind spots" prior to you do a turn, parallel park, open a door or leave a curb. Execute not depend just on her mirrors - rotate your head come look for bicyclists and also skaters and scooter operator that might be alongside you or approaching.

Give bicyclists and in-line skaters room when you drive. Alleviate speed together you pass them. Air pressure from a car that overcome them conveniently can send them off balance.

Be conscious that the bicyclist or in-line skater near or in former of you can react to road hazards like a motorcyclist would through sudden transforms of speed, direction or lane position.

The rules of the road and right-of-way apply to and protect these and other highway users. You must yield the right-of-way come them simply as you would to an additional vehicle. And also they need to obey the rules of the road simply as motor vehicle drivers do.

Bicyclists and in-line skaters must:Ride in a bicycle lane, if available. Wherein there is none, they must remain close to the best curb or sheet of the road or on a ideal shoulder that the road, to prevent interference with various other traffic. As soon as they prepare because that a left rotate or must move left to prevent hazards, cyclists perform not have to remain come the right.Come come a complete stop prior to they enter a roadway native a driveway, an alley or end a curb.Never take trip with an ext than two side-by-side in a single lane.Never journey on a sidewalk if that is prohibition by regional laws.

Bicyclists and also their passengers and in-line skaters, eras 1 v 13, must wear an authorized helmet. Adults must obey local regulations or regulations around helmet use.

Bicyclists likewise must:Signal turns, lane changes and stops v the use of the hand signal shown. A bicyclist have the right to signal a right turn when they expand the appropriate arm right out come the right. 


Left turn - left arm fully extended come left; avoid - left arm extended and also bent down at elbow; best turn - right arm fully extended to appropriate or left arm extended and bent up in ~ elbow

Never bring an child under a year old as a passenger. The is versus the law. Boy passengers eras 1 - 4 year old must ride in enclosed bicycle safety and security seats.Never bring a passenger uneven the bicycle has a passenger seat.Keep at the very least one hand on the handlebars at every times and do no carry item which prevents correct control of the bike crash that causes death or serious injury have to be report to within 10 job of the incident. Bicycle accident report develops (MV-104C) are obtainable at type of motor vehicle office.

A bicycle driven on windy highways must have actually adequate brakes and also a horn or bell that deserve to be heard at least 100 feet (30 m) away. A bicycle supplied at night must have a headlight visible from at the very least 500 feet (150 m) ahead and a red taillight clearly shows from at the very least 300 feet (90 m) behind. One of these lights must be visible from at the very least 200 feet (60 m) far on each side. A bicycle sold by a dealer must have actually wide-angle, spoke-mounted reflectors or reflective tires, a wide-angle rear reflector and pedal reflectors.



As a driver, friend share the roadway with a most other vehicle drivers – not every one of which are driving car or trucks. Motorcycles are common on brand-new York roads. As a driver, you space responsible come be conscious of motorcycles and understand how to safely share the roadway with them.

Motorcycles (which include scooters and mopeds) come in a range of shapes and sizes. New York State Law defines a motorcycle as “Every motor car having a seat or saddle because that the usage of the rider and designed to take trip on not more than 3 wheels in call with the ground, yet excluding a tractor.” most motorcycles you’ll see have actually either 2 or 3 wheels. Examples include (but are not limited to Cruisers, Standards, Dual-sport, Off-road, sport bikes, Tourers, Mopeds, and also Scooters):


Motorcyclists have the exact same rights and responsibilities as motorists of various other vehicles, and also must monitor the same traffic legislations as pedestrians, bicyclists and skaters. Though you may frequently see motorcycles on the roads in the spring, summer, or autumn – you have the right to encounter motorcycles aaramuseum.orgtime and aaramuseum.orgwhere. Since we don’t check out them all year, we may not proactively think about them.

When there is a crash including a motorcycle and another vehicle, the driver (and passenger) have a much higher chance of gift seriously ache or killed than the driver (and passengers) that the various other vehicle. Though motorcyclists are required to wear authorized helmets and goggles or a confront shield, motorcycles themselves execute not sell the driver the protections the you have with other varieties of vehicles. Because that example, motorcycles don’t protect the rider v a frame approximately the rider. drivers who are involved in a crash v a motorcyclist report that they go not check out the motorcycle. The inquiry is “why not?” 

There room several factors that do motorcyclists less visible.

Motorcycles, when contrasted to various other highway users, are smaller. No issue from i m sorry direction you check out a motorcycle (front, back, or side), you’ll discover they are smaller sized than other highway users. Motorcycles may appear to move quicker than various other vehicles. A motorcycle’s smaller sized size provides it seem lot farther away, and also makes it complicated to judge how much away they room or how quick they are going. Motorcycles may not take it up the entire lane since they space not as broad as various other vehicles, however an proficient rider may move roughly within a lane to prevent obstacles, or to aid them see better. In addition to using the full lane, two motorcyclists are permitted to ride side-by-side in a single lane, but a motorcyclist cannot pass or re-publishing a roadway with another motor car that is no a motorcycle. If you room overtaking a car/SUV/truck, you can not have seen the motorcycle in prior of that car until you’re already in the happen lane. The same holds true if you room entering an expressway. You might not view a motorcycle the is control in the left part of the roadway you intend to merge into.Motorcycle lighting is different, and often much less obvious, than various other vehicles:Headlights and taillights ~ above motorcycles should be illuminated as soon as driving. But, with so vehicles equipped v daytime to run lights (i.e. Headlights the are constantly on – also in daylight), motorcycle headlights don’t was standing out.It’s more difficult to check out the brake lights. Tail lights on a motorcycle are generally smaller in size than those on other vehicles, and also because motorcycle tail lights are always on, the brake lamp don’t always stand out.Motorcycles don’t have a tail light at eye level. Most cars and trucks are equipped with a “Center High Mount prevent Light” (CHMSL) which is designed to be at, or nearby to, eye level. Most motorcycle brake lights are mounted lower 보다 eye level, which renders them less apparent to plenty of motorists.Turn signal on motorcycles are often close come the headlight or taillights, which have the right to make them more complicated to see. Additionally, on most motorcycles, the directional signal does not turn off immediately after a turn, therefore their revolve signal might be on inadvertently once the motorcyclist has actually no intention of turning.


Intersections deserve to be particularly dangerous for motorcycles. It’s human nature come notice huge vehicles first. Motorcycles are smaller than other vehicles, and also they may seem to “blend in.” Numbers aid tell the story:

The nationwide Highway web traffic Safety administration reports that, in 2015, 41 percent of deadly motorcycle crashes in the US arisen with “the other vehicle turning left if the motorcycles to be going straight, passing, or overtaking various other vehicles.” In 2014, there were 4,750 report motorcycle crashes in new York State. 2,546 of these crashes involved an additional vehicle. It is 53.6% that the report crashes. 


Another factor is that vehicle drivers may not watch motorcycles simply because they nothing look because that motorcycles. It’s human being nature come look because that something specific. A new driver may be told come look for cars (and trucks) prior to going with an intersection – and that is specifically what the driver will look for. All motorists need come train themselves to look for a multitude of risks (including – however NOT minimal TO - trucks, buses, bicyclists, pedestrians, and also motorcycles).

Because motorcyclists should take added precautions once they come upon distinct highway surfaces, friend should recognize what a motorcyclist might do:

The motorcyclist might quickly adjust speed or lane position to avoid loosened gravel, debris, seams or grooves in the pavement, drain or accessibility covers or small animals.When pull close a railroad crossing, a motorcyclist may decrease speed and rise off the chair to cushion the rough crossing and change direction to go across the tracks at a best angle.On steel deck bridges the motorcyclist might move to the facility of the roadway to adjust for the surface ar that is not even. Continue to be a great distance behind a motorcyclist in this situation.

Drivers require to change how they drive around motorcycles. 

Don’t tailgate. Motorcycles have the right to stop in a much shorter distance 보다 cars – under the appropriate conditions. Also, it might be more an overwhelming to notification they space slowing or stopping.If that raining, or dark, give motorcycles even more space.

Be cautious when you happen a motorcyclist. Favor bicycles, the waiting pressure produced by vehicles as they conveniently pass by can influence motorcycles.



Limited use motorcycles, often called mopeds, room low speed, 2 or three-wheeled vehicles for minimal use on windy highways. There space three different classes that mopeds based on maximum performance speed. The chart below describes the requirements for moped operation.

Class B and also C mopeds deserve to be driven just in the appropriate lane of traffic, as far to the ideal as possible. Class A mopeds are permitted to journey in kind of lane and section of a lane. Mopeds room not allowed on expressways or various other controlled access highways unless posted indicators permit it.

When you method a moped, usage the same precautions friend would when you technique a bicyclist.


Top speed variety mph (km/h)31 to 40(Over 48 to 64)21 to 30(32 to 48)20 or less(32 or less)
Type of license or learner"s permit required CLASS CLASS 4
Registration requiredYES (A Plate)YES (B Plate)YES (C Plate)
Headlight to it is in on as soon as operatingYESYESYES
Helmet & eye protection required when operating 5YESYESRecommended
Where operation is website traffic Lane & ShoulderRight Hand Lane or Shoulder 1 Right Hand lane or Shoulder 1 
Mandatory insurance requiredYESYESRecommended 2
Safety responsibility 3 appliesYESYESYES
Annual investigate requiredYESRecommendedRecommended
Title requiredNONONO

1 other than when do a left hand turn.

2 If a course C restricted use motorcycle is provided in a rental business, insurance allowance is mandatory.

3 Safety obligation is the need to pay because that or post security for damage or personal injury friend may reason in web traffic crash.

4 normal learner"s permit and junior license limitations apply.

5 Motorcyclists need to wear approved motorcycle helmets, as identified by USDOT commonwealth motor automobile safety requirements (FMVSS 218). To enhance the motorcyclist"s visibility, the recommends that helmets have actually at least 4 square inches of reflective product on both sides. Motorcyclists must also wear authorized eye protection, even if the motorcycle is equipped v a windshield. Prescription or made-to-order security glasses may be used if the user can present written certification that they accomplish standards. The eye protection should be produced in conformity v the regulations issued through the car Equipment safety Commission (VESC-8).


In an ext than 60 percent of every fatal crashes involving cars and huge trucks, the vehicle driver, no the truck driver, contributes come the cause of the website traffic crash. Four out of five times, it is the auto driver who is killed. of this crashes could be prevent if motorists know around truck (and bus) limitations and also how to steer cost-free from cases that space unsafe and also involve big vehicles.

Large trucks, recreational vehicles and also buses space not big cars. The bigger they are:

The enlarge their blind spots,The longer it takes them to stop,The more room they need to maneuver,The longer it takes because that an auto to happen them.Blind Spots

Different native cars, huge vehicles have deep remote spots straight behind them. They also have much larger blind spots on both sides than cars do. Tractors with lengthy hoods deserve to have a remote spot that 20 feet in prior of the vehicle. You must avoid this "no zones."



Side blind Spots

Large vehicles have actually much larger blind point out on both sides. If you drive in these remote spots, you cannot be checked out by the driver. Even if the driver to know you are there, if girlfriend remain alongside the automobile it can make it challenging for the driver ability to stop a attention situation.

Blind point out in Back

If you remain in the earlier blind clues of a big vehicle, you increase the chance of a crash. The other driver cannot view your car, and your see of other traffic will be blocked.

Distance to Stop

Large vehicles take it much much longer to protect against than smaller vehicles that take trip at the same speed. Because that tractor trailers, the difference comes from brake delay. Air brakes transmit brake power from the tractor come the trailer and also this can include feet come the distance it takes to stop. Leaving plenty of room between her car and the truck. If you room in prior of a truck, indicate your on purpose to turn or adjust lanes early. Do not do sudden moves.


Ability to maneuver

Large vehicles space not together maneuverable as cars. They take much longer to stop and also to accelerate and also they regularly need come move large to do their turns.

You can reduce the possibility of a collision v a big vehicle if you:

Do not cut abruptly in front of the large vehicle; once you exit, take a couple of additional secs to diminish speed and also exit behind it; once you pass do not pull in former of it uneven you have the right to see the totality front the the vehicle in her mirror.Pay close fist to the revolve signals. Because trucks make broad right turns, they move to the left before they rotate right. Look at the revolve signals.Do not hold-up near a big vehicle. You may not be visible to the driver in the wide area the truck demands for do a turn.When girlfriend pass

When you pass a big vehicle, that takes a much longer time and also requires more space than as soon as you happen a car. On a two-way road, leave an ext time and room when you happen a large vehicle. Make sure you have the right to see the totality front that the vehicle before you return to your roadway after girlfriend pass. A big vehicle typically loses rate on a great or a hill. Look much ahead when you drive. If you should pass a huge vehicle, it is in prepared and also know when you are close to a grade that can cause the other automobile to diminish speed. Also, as your own auto begins a downward grade, the speed of the other vehicle can rise significantly. This will rise the time that takes girlfriend to pass it.

When a truck is backing up

Never pass close behind a big vehicle the is backing up. Frequently a truck driver needs to block a roadway to ago into an area to load or unload goods. Be patient!

It is far far better to wait till the huge vehicle has actually completed its back-up maneuver than to shot to pass. If you shot to happen in this situation, the is most likely that girlfriend will get in one the the remote spots. This can make your auto invisible come the driver and increase the threat of a traffic crash.

When you strategy a truck

Do not underestimate the size and also speed of an approaching tractor-trailer or other large vehicle. Its larger size will regularly make it show up to move at a slower rate than it really is. Also, from a distance it may not show up to be as huge as it really is. The other vehicle will regularly reach you before you expect! as soon as you journey on a two­ way highway, it is often far better to relocate as far to the best as possible to make certain your vehicle will no be struggle by an draw close tractor-trailer or other big vehicle.

When you prevent behind a truck

Always leave room when you stop in back of a truck or bus in ~ a web traffic light or prevent sign, specifically when you face up a hill. The truck or bus might stop or move backward slightly as soon as it starts. If girlfriend leave sufficient room between your vehicle and the automobile ahead, you usually can pull away from behind and go about it.



The "slow-moving vehicle" symbol, a reflective orange triangle, have to be presented on the earlier of vehicles attracted by animals, most farm vehicles, and also construction equipment. The United claims Postal Service additionally requires this orange safety-triangles come be shown on all rural mail delivery vehicles. Use caution when you method a slow-moving vehicle and also make certain it is safe prior to you pass.


State law permits all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) and also snowmobiles come legally go across numerous state highways and local roadways. Prior to they cross, they must come come a stop and also yield to traffic. They have to go across at a 90-degree angle to the roadway surface.



Horse riders space subject to, and protected by, the rule of the road. They additionally must journey single document near the right curb or road edge, or on a right shoulder, roadway or course that deserve to be used.

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The law requires you to be cautious when you method a horse being ridden or walked follow me a road. You should drive at an acceptable speed and also at one acceptable distance away from the horse. That is illegal to sound her horn when you strategy or pass a horse.



Before you go on to chapter 12, make sure you deserve to answer these questions:

How execute the blind spots approximately a big commercial automobile differ indigenous the blind spots approximately a car?How go the preventing distance the a huge vehicle with air brakes compare with the protecting against distance of a car?After you pass a huge vehicle, what need to you make sure of prior to you go back to the roadway of the huge vehicle?What is the best method to follow once you technique a huge vehicle that is in reverse together it moves toward a loading area?When youngsters are close, what should you do prior to you ago out of a driveway?How can you recognize a remote pedestrian to whom you should yield the best of way?Where must a pedestrian walk once there are no sidewalks?How should you approach a bicyclist?Must a bicyclist obey traffic laws and signs?Where there is no bike lane, where on the road must a bicyclist ride?What tools must a bicycle have when offered at night?

What can a driver perform to be an ext aware of motorcyclists?

 What factors add to drivers not being aware of motorcycles?

 Why room motorcycles harder come see?

 Why is it vital for a motorist come be aware of motorcycles?

May 3 motorcyclists ride side-by-side in a single lane?What is the slow-moving car symbol?Where room you most likely to discover an ATV, snowmobile or horse rider?